This is the multi-page printable view of this section. Click here to print.

Return to the regular view of this page.

Cluster management

Common tasks for managing EKS Anywhere clusters

1 - Overview

Overview of EKS Anywhere cluster management

Once you have an EKS Anywhere cluster up and running, there are a number of operational tasks you may need to perform, such as changing cluster configuration, upgrading the cluster Kubernetes version, scaling the cluster, and setting up additional operational software such as ingress/load balancing tools, observability tools, and storage drivers.

Cluster Lifecycle Operations

The tools available for cluster lifecycle operations (create, update, upgrade, scale, delete) vary based on the EKS Anywhere architecture you run. You must use the eksctl CLI for cluster lifecycle operations with standalone clusters and management clusters. If you are running a management / workload cluster architecture, you can use the management cluster to manage one-to-many downstream workload clusters. With the management cluster architecture, you can use the eksctl CLI, any Kubernetes API-compatible client, or Infrastructure as Code (IAC) tooling such as Terraform and GitOps to manage the lifecycle of workload clusters. For details on the differences between the architecture options, reference the Architecture page .

To perform cluster lifecycle operations for standalone, management, or workload clusters, you modify the EKS Anywhere Cluster specification, which is a Kubernetes Custom Resource for EKS Anywhere clusters. When you modify a field in an existing Cluster specification, EKS Anywhere reconciles the infrastructure and Kubernetes components until they match the new desired state you defined. These operations are asynchronous and you can validate the state of your cluster following the guidance on the Verify Cluster page . To change a cluster configuration, update the field(s) in the Cluster specification and apply it to your standalone or management cluster. To upgrade the Kubernetes version, update the kubernetesVersion field in the Cluster specification and apply it to your standalone or management cluster. To scale the cluster, update the control plane or worker node count in the Cluster specification and apply it to the standalone or management cluster, or alternatively use Cluster Autoscaler to automate the scaling process. This operational model facilitates a declarative, intent-based pattern for defining and managing Kubernetes clusters that aligns with modern IAC and GitOps practices.

Networking

With EKS Anywhere, each virtual machine or bare metal server in the cluster gets an IP address via DHCP. The mechanics of this process vary for each provider (vSphere, bare metal, etc.) and it is handled automatically by EKS Anywhere during machine provisioning. During cluster creation, you must configure an IP address for the cluster’s control plane endpoint that is not in your DHCP address range but is reachable from your cluster’s subnet. This may require changes to your DHCP server to create an IP reservation. The IP address you specify for your cluster control plane endpoint is used as the virtual IP address for kube-vip , which EKS Anywhere uses to load balance traffic across the control plane nodes. You cannot change this IP address after cluster creation.

You additionally must configure CIDR blocks for Pods and Services in the Cluster specification during cluster creation. Each node in EKS Anywhere clusters receives an IP range subset from the Pod CIDR block, see Node IPs configuration for details. EKS Anywhere uses Cilium as the Container Networking Interface (CNI). The Cilium version in EKS Anywhere, “EKS Anywhere Cilium”, contains a subset of the open source Cilium capabilities. EKS Anywhere configures Cilium in Kubernetes host-scope IPAM mode , which delegates the address allocation to each individual node in the cluster. You can optionally replace the EKS Anywhere Cilium installation with a different CNI after cluster creation. Reference the Custom CNI page for details.

Security

The Shared Responsibility Model for EKS Anywhere is different than other AWS services that run in AWS Cloud, and it is your responsibility for the ongoing security of EKS Anywhere clusters you operate. Be sure to review and follow the EKS Anywhere Security Best Practices .

Support

EKS Anywhere is open source and free to use at no cost. To receive support for your EKS Anywhere clusters, you can optionally purchase EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscriptions to get 24/7 support from AWS subject matter experts and access to EKS Anywhere Curated Packages . See the License cluster page for information on how to apply a license to your EKS Anywhere clusters, and the Generate Support Bundle page for details on how to create a support bundle that contains diagnostics that AWS uses to troubleshoot and resolve issues.

Ingress & Load Balancing

Most Kubernetes-conformant Ingress and Load Balancing options can be used with EKS Anywhere. EKS Anywhere includes Emissary Ingress and MetalLB as EKS Anywhere Curated Packages. For more information on EKS Anywhere Curated Packages, reference the Package Management Overview .

Observability

Most Kubernetes-conformant observability tools can be used with EKS Anywhere. You can optionally use the EKS Connector to view your EKS Anywhere cluster resources in the Amazon EKS console, reference the Connect to console page for details. EKS Anywhere includes the AWS Distro for Open Telemetry (ADOT) and Prometheus for metrics and tracing as EKS Anywhere Curated Packages. You can use popular tooling such as Fluent Bit for logging, and can track the progress of logging for ADOT on the AWS Observability roadmap . For more information on EKS Anywhere Curated Packages, reference the Package Management Overview .

Storage

Most Kubernetes-conformant storage options can be used with EKS Anywhere. For example, you can use the vSphere CSI driver with EKS Anywhere clusters on vSphere. As of the v0.17.0 EKS Anywhere release, EKS Anywhere no longer installs or manages the vSphere CSI driver automatically, and you must self-manage this add-on. Other popular storage options include Rook/Ceph , OpenEBS, , Portworx , and Netapp Trident . Please note, if you are using Bottlerocket with EKS Anywhere, Bottlerocket does not currently support iSCSI, see the Bottlerocket GitHub for details.

2 - Upgrade cluster

How to upgrade your cluster to new EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes versions

2.1 - Upgrade Overview

Overview of EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes version upgrades

Version upgrades in EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes are events that should be carefully planned, tested, and implemented. New EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes versions can introduce significant changes, and we recommend that you test the behavior of your applications against new EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes versions before you update your production clusters. Cluster backups should always be performed before initiating an upgrade. When initiating cluster version upgrades, new virtual or bare metal machines are provisioned and the machines on older versions are deprovisioned in a rolling fashion by default.

Unlike Amazon EKS, there are no automatic upgrades in EKS Anywhere and you have full control over when you upgrade. On the end of support date, you can still create new EKS Anywhere clusters with the unsupported Kubernetes version if the EKS Anywhere version you are using includes it. Any existing EKS Anywhere clusters with the unsupported Kubernetes version continue to function. As new Kubernetes versions become available in EKS Anywhere, we recommend that you proactively update your clusters to use the latest available Kubernetes version to remain on versions that receive CVE patches and bug fixes.

Reference the EKS Anywhere Changelog for information on fixes, features, and changes included in each EKS Anywhere release. For details on the EKS Anywhere version support policy, reference the Versioning page.

Upgrade Version Skew

There are a few dimensions of versioning to consider in your EKS Anywhere deployments:

  • Management clusters to workload clusters: Management clusters can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of workload clusters. Workload clusters cannot have an EKS Anywhere version greater than management clusters.
  • Management components to cluster components: Management components can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of cluster components.
  • EKS Anywhere version upgrades: Skipping EKS Anywhere minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v0.17.x to v0.19.x). We recommend you upgrade one EKS Anywhere minor version at a time (v0.17.x to v0.18.x to v0.19.x).
  • Kubernetes version upgrades: Skipping Kubernetes minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v1.26.x to v1.28.x). You must upgrade one Kubernetes minor version at a time (v1.26.x to v1.27.x to v1.28.x).
  • Kubernetes control plane and worker nodes: As of Kubernetes v1.28, worker nodes can be up to 3 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version. In earlier Kubernetes versions, worker nodes could be up to 2 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version.

User Interfaces

EKS Anywhere versions for management and standalone clusters must be upgraded with the eksctl anywhere CLI. Kubernetes versions for management, standalone, and workload clusters, and EKS Anywhere versions for workload clusters can be upgraded with the eksctl anywhere CLI or with Kubernetes API-compatible clients such as the kubectl CLI, GitOps, or Terraform. For an overview of the differences between management, standalone, workload clusters, reference the Architecture page.

If you are using the eksctl anywhere CLI, there are eksctl anywhere upgrade plan cluster and eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster commands. The former shows the components and versions that will be upgraded. The latter runs the upgrade, first validating a set of preflight checks and then upgrading your cluster to match the updated spec.

If you are using an Kubernetes API-compatible client, you modify your workload cluster spec yaml and apply the modified yaml to your management cluster. The EKS Anywhere lifecycle controller, which runs on the management cluster, reconciles the desired changes on the workload cluster.

As of EKS Anywhere version v0.19.0, management components can be upgraded separately from cluster components. This is enables you to get the latest updates to the management components such as Cluster API controller, EKS Anywhere controller, and provider-specific controllers without impact to your workload clusters. Management components can only be upgraded with the eksctl anywhere CLI, which has new eksctl anywhere upgrade plan management-components and eksctl anywhere upgrade management-component commands. For more information, reference the Upgrade Management Components page.

Upgrading EKS Anywhere Versions

Each EKS Anywhere version includes all components required to create and manage EKS Anywhere clusters. For example, this includes:

  • Administrative / CLI components (eksctl anywhere CLI, image-builder, diagnostics-collector)
  • Management components (Cluster API controller, EKS Anywhere controller, provider-specific controllers)
  • Cluster components (Kubernetes, Cilium)

You can find details about each EKS Anywhere releases in the EKS Anywhere release manifest. The release manifest contains references to the corresponding bundle manifest for each EKS Anywhere version. Within the bundle manifest, you will find the components included in a specific EKS Anywhere version. The images running in your deployment use the same URI values specified in the bundle manifest for that component. For example, see the bundle manifest for EKS Anywhere version v0.18.7.

To upgrade the EKS Anywhere version of a management or standalone cluster, you install a new version of the eksctl anywhere CLI, change the eksaVersion field in your management or standalone cluster’s spec yaml, and then run the eksctl anywhere upgrade management-components -f cluster.yaml (as of EKS Anywhere version v0.19) or eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster -f cluster.yaml command. The eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster command upgrades both management and cluster components.

To upgrade the EKS Anywhere version of a workload cluster, you change the eksaVersion field in your workload cluster’s spec yaml, and apply the new workload cluster’s spec yaml to your management cluster using the eksctl anywhere CLI or with Kubernetes API-compatible clients.

Upgrading Kubernetes Versions

Each EKS Anywhere version supports at least 4 minor versions of Kubernetes. Kubernetes patch version increments are included in EKS Anywhere minor and patch releases. There are two places in the cluster spec where you can configure the Kubernetes version, Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion and Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion. If only Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion is set, then that version will apply to both control plane and worker nodes. You can use Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion to upgrade your worker nodes separately from control plane nodes.

The Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion cannot be greater than Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion. In Kubernetes versions lower than v1.28.0, the Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion can be at most 2 versions lower than the Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion. In Kubernetes versions v1.28.0 or greater, the Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion can be at most 3 versions lower than the Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion.

Upgrade Controls

By default, when you upgrade EKS Anywhere or Kubernetes versions, nodes are upgraded one at a time in a rolling fashion. All control plane nodes are upgraded before worker nodes. To control the speed and behavior of rolling upgrades, you can use the upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge and upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxUnavailable fields in the cluster spec (available on all providers as of EKS Anywhere version v0.19). The maxSurge setting controls how many new machines can be queued for provisioning simultaneously, and the maxUnavailable setting controls how many machines must remain available during upgrades. For more information on these controls, reference Advanced configuration for vSphere, CloudStack, Nutanix, and Snow upgrades and Advanced configuration for bare metal upgrades.

As of EKS Anywhere version v0.19.0, if you are running EKS Anywhere on bare metal, you can use the in-place rollout strategy to upgrade EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes versions, which upgrades the components on the same physical machines without requiring additional server capacity. In-place upgrades are not available for other providers.

2.2 - Upgrade Bare Metal cluster

How to perform Bare Metal cluster upgrades

Considerations

  • Only EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes version upgrades are supported for Bare Metal clusters. You cannot update other cluster configuration.
  • Upgrades should never be run from ephemeral nodes (short-lived systems that spin up and down on a regular basis). If the EKS Anywhere version is lower than v0.18.0 and upgrade fails, you must not delete the KinD bootstrap cluster Docker container. During an upgrade, the bootstrap cluster contains critical EKS Anywhere components. If it is deleted after a failed upgrade, they cannot be recovered.
  • It is highly recommended to run the eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster command with the --no-timeouts option when the command is executed through automation. This prevents the CLI from timing out and enables cluster operators to fix issues preventing the upgrade from completing while the process is running.
  • In EKS Anywhere version v0.15.0, we introduced the EKS Anywhere cluster lifecycle controller that runs on management clusters and manages workload clusters. The EKS Anywhere lifecycle controller enables you to use Kubernetes API-compatible clients such as kubectl, GitOps, or Terraform for managing workload clusters. In this EKS Anywhere version, the EKS Anywhere cluster lifecycle controller rolls out new nodes in workload clusters when management clusters are upgraded. In EKS Anywhere version v0.16.0, this behavior was changed such that management clusters can be upgraded separately from workload clusters.
  • When running workload cluster upgrades after upgrading a management cluster, a machine rollout may be triggered on workload clusters during the workload cluster upgrade, even if the changes to the workload cluster spec didn’t require one (for example scaling down a worker node group).
  • Starting with EKS Anywhere v0.18.0, the osImageURL must include the Kubernetes minor version (Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion or Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion in the cluster spec). For example, if the Kubernetes version is 1.29, the osImageURL must include 1.29, 1_29, 1-29 or 129. If you are upgrading Kubernetes versions, you must have a new OS image with your target Kubernetes version components.
  • If you are running EKS Anywhere in an airgapped environment, you must download the new artifacts and images prior to initiating the upgrade. Reference the Airgapped Upgrades page page for more information.

Upgrade Version Skew

There are a few dimensions of versioning to consider in your EKS Anywhere deployments:

  • Management clusters to workload clusters: Management clusters can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of workload clusters. Workload clusters cannot have an EKS Anywhere version greater than management clusters.
  • Management components to cluster components: Management components can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of cluster components.
  • EKS Anywhere version upgrades: Skipping EKS Anywhere minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v0.17.x to v0.19.x). We recommend you upgrade one EKS Anywhere minor version at a time (v0.17.x to v0.18.x to v0.19.x).
  • Kubernetes version upgrades: Skipping Kubernetes minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v1.26.x to v1.28.x). You must upgrade one Kubernetes minor version at a time (v1.26.x to v1.27.x to v1.28.x).
  • Kubernetes control plane and worker nodes: As of Kubernetes v1.28, worker nodes can be up to 3 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version. In earlier Kubernetes versions, worker nodes could be up to 2 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version.

Prerequisites

EKS Anywhere upgrades on Bare Metal require at least one spare hardware server for control plane upgrade and one for each worker node group upgrade. During upgrade, the spare hardware server is provisioned with the new version and then an old server is deprovisioned. The deprovisioned server is then reprovisioned with the new version while another old server is deprovisioned. This happens one at a time until all the control plane components have been upgraded, followed by worker node upgrades.

Check upgrade components

Before you perform an upgrade, check the current and new versions of components that are ready to upgrade by typing:

eksctl anywhere upgrade plan cluster -f cluster.yaml

The output should appear similar to the following:

Checking new release availability...
NAME                 CURRENT VERSION                NEXT VERSION
EKS-A Management     v0.19.0-dev+build.20+a0037f0   v0.19.0-dev+build.26+3bc5008
cert-manager         v1.13.2+129095a                v1.13.2+bb56494
cluster-api          v1.6.1+5efe087                 v1.6.1+9cf3436
kubeadm              v1.6.1+8ceb315                 v1.6.1+82f1c0a
tinkerbell           v0.4.0+cdde180                 v0.4.0+e848206
kubeadm              v1.6.1+6420e1c                 v1.6.1+2f0b35f
etcdadm-bootstrap    v1.0.10+7094b99                v1.0.10+a3f0355
etcdadm-controller   v1.0.17+0259550                v1.0.17+ba86997

To format the output in json, add -o json to the end of the command line.

Check hardware availability

Next, you must ensure you have enough available hardware for the rolling upgrade operation to function. This type of upgrade requires you to have one spare hardware server for control plane upgrade and one for each worker node group upgrade. Check prerequisites for more information. Available hardware could have been fed to the cluster as extra hardware during a prior create command, or could be fed to the cluster during the upgrade process by providing the hardware CSV file to the upgrade cluster command .

To check if you have enough available hardware for rolling upgrade, you can use the kubectl command below to check if there are hardware objects with the selector labels corresponding to the controlplane/worker node group and without the ownerName label.

kubectl get hardware -n eksa-system --show-labels

For example, if you want to perform upgrade on a cluster with one worker node group with selector label type=worker-group-1, then you must have an additional hardware object in your cluster with the label type=controlplane (for control plane upgrade) and one with type=worker-group-1 (for worker node group upgrade) that doesn’t have the ownerName label.

In the command shown below, eksa-worker2 matches the selector label and it doesn’t have the ownerName label. Thus, it can be used to perform rolling upgrade of worker-group-1. Similarly, eksa-controlplane-spare will be used for rolling upgrade of control plane.

kubectl get hardware -n eksa-system --show-labels 
NAME                STATE       LABELS
eksa-controlplane               type=controlplane,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerName=abhnvp-control-plane-template-1656427179688-9rm5f,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerNamespace=eksa-system
eksa-controlplane-spare         type=controlplane
eksa-worker1                    type=worker-group-1,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerName=abhnvp-md-0-1656427179689-9fqnx,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerNamespace=eksa-system
eksa-worker2                    type=worker-group-1

If you don’t have any available hardware that match this requirement in the cluster, you can setup a new hardware CSV . You can feed this hardware inventory file during the upgrade cluster command .

Performing a cluster upgrade

To perform a cluster upgrade you can modify your cluster specification kubernetesVersion field to the desired version.

As an example, to upgrade a cluster with version 1.24 to 1.25 you would change your spec as follows:

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: dev
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1
    endpoint:
      host: "198.18.99.49"
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: TinkerbellMachineConfig
      name: dev
      ...
  kubernetesVersion: "1.25"
      ...

NOTE: If you have a custom machine image for your nodes in your cluster config yaml or to upgrade a node or group of nodes to a new operating system version (ie. RHEL 8.7 to RHEL 8.8), you may also need to update your TinkerbellDatacenterConfig or TinkerbellMachineConfig with the new operating system image URL osImageURL .

and then you will run the upgrade cluster command .

Upgrade cluster command

  • kubectl CLI: The cluster lifecycle feature lets you use kubectl to talk to the Kubernetes API to upgrade a workload cluster. To use kubectl, run:

    kubectl apply -f eksa-w01-cluster.yaml 
    --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    

    To check the state of a cluster managed with the cluster lifecyle feature, use kubectl to show the cluster object with its status.

    The status field on the cluster object field holds information about the current state of the cluster.

    kubectl get clusters w01 -o yaml
    

    The cluster has been fully upgraded once the status of the Ready condition is marked True. See the cluster status guide for more information.

  • GitOps: See Manage separate workload clusters with GitOps

  • Terraform: See Manage separate workload clusters with Terraform

    NOTE:For kubectl, GitOps and Terraform:

    • The baremetal controller does not support scaling upgrades and Kubernetes version upgrades in the same request.

    • While scaling a workload cluster if you need to add additional machines, run:

      eksctl anywhere generate hardware -z updated-hardware.csv > updated-hardware.yaml
      kubectl apply -f updated-hardware.yaml
      
    • If you want to upgrade multiple workload clusters, make sure that the spare hardware that is available for new nodes to rollout has labels unique to the workload cluster you are trying to upgrade. For instance, for an EKSA cluster named eksa-workload1, the hardware that is assigned for this cluster should have labels that are only going to be used for this cluster like type=eksa-workload1-cp and type=eksa-workload1-worker. Another workload cluster named eksa-workload2 can have labels like type=eksa-workload2-cp and type=eksa-workload2-worker. Please note that even though labels can be arbitrary, they need to be unique for each workload cluster. Not specifying unique cluster labels can cause cluster upgrades to behave in unexpected ways which may lead to unsuccessful upgrades and unstable clusters.

  • eksctl CLI: To upgrade a workload cluster with eksctl, run:

    eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster -f cluster.yaml 
    # --hardware-csv <hardware.csv> \ # uncomment to add more hardware
    --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    

    As noted earlier, adding the --kubeconfig option tells eksctl to use the management cluster identified by that kubeconfig file to create a different workload cluster.

    This will upgrade the cluster specification (if specified), upgrade the core components to the latest available versions and apply the changes using the provisioner controllers.

    Output

    Example output:

    ✅ control plane ready
    ✅ worker nodes ready
    ✅ nodes ready
    ✅ cluster CRDs ready
    ✅ cluster object present on workload cluster
    ✅ upgrade cluster kubernetes version increment
    ✅ validate immutable fields
    🎉 all cluster upgrade preflight validations passed
    Performing provider setup and validations
    Ensuring etcd CAPI providers exist on management cluster before upgrade
    Pausing GitOps cluster resources reconcile
    Upgrading core components
    Backing up management cluster's resources before upgrading
    Upgrading management cluster
    Updating Git Repo with new EKS-A cluster spec
    Forcing reconcile Git repo with latest commit
    Resuming GitOps cluster resources kustomization
    Writing cluster config file
    🎉 Cluster upgraded!
    Cleaning up backup resources
    

    Starting in EKS Anywhere v0.18.0, when upgrading management cluster the CLI depends on the EKS Anywhere Controller to perform the upgrade. In the event an issue occurs and the CLI times out, it may be possible to fix the issue and have the upgrade complete as the EKS Anywhere Controller will continually attempt to complete the upgrade.

    During the workload cluster upgrade process, EKS Anywhere pauses the cluster controller reconciliation by adding the paused annotation anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused: true to the EKS Anywhere cluster, provider datacenterconfig and machineconfig resources, before the components upgrade. After upgrade completes, the annotations are removed so that the cluster controller resumes reconciling the cluster. If the CLI execution is interrupted or times out, the controller won’t reconcile changes to the EKS-A objects until these annotations are removed. You can re-run the CLI to restart the upgrade process or remove the annotations manually with kubectl.

    Though not recommended, you can manually pause the EKS Anywhere cluster controller reconciliation to perform extended maintenance work or interact with Cluster API objects directly. To do it, you can add the paused annotation to the cluster resource:

    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com ${CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused=true
    

    After finishing the task, make sure you resume the cluster reconciliation by removing the paused annotation, so that EKS Anywhere cluster controller can continue working as expected.

    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com ${CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused-
    

Upgradeable cluster attributes

Cluster:

  • kubernetesVersion
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.count
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.count
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.kubernetesVersion (in case of modular upgrade)
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxUnavailable

TinkerbellDatacenterConfig:

  • osImageURL

Advanced configuration for upgrade rollout strategy

EKS Anywhere allows an optional configuration to customize the behavior of upgrades.

upgradeRolloutStrategy can be configured separately for control plane and for each worker node group. This template contains an example for control plane under the controlPlaneConfiguration section and for worker node group under workerNodeGroupConfigurations:

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: my-cluster-name
spec:
  clusterNetwork:
    cniConfig:
      cilium: {}
    pods:
      cidrBlocks:
      - 192.168.0.0/16
    services:
      cidrBlocks:
      - 10.96.0.0/12
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1
    endpoint:
      host: "10.61.248.209"
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: TinkerbellMachineConfig
      name: my-cluster-name-cp
    upgradeRolloutStrategy:
      type: RollingUpdate
      rollingUpdate:
        maxSurge: 1
  datacenterRef:
    kind: TinkerbellDatacenterConfig
    name: my-cluster-name
  kubernetesVersion: "1.25"
  managementCluster:
    name: my-cluster-name 
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 2
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: TinkerbellMachineConfig
      name: my-cluster-name 
    name: md-0
    upgradeRolloutStrategy:
      type: RollingUpdate
      rollingUpdate:
        maxSurge: 1
        maxUnavailable: 0

---
...

upgradeRolloutStrategy

Configuration parameters for upgrade strategy.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.type

Default: RollingUpdate

Type of rollout strategy. Supported values: RollingUpdate,InPlace.

NOTE: The upgrade rollout strategy type must be the same for all control plane and worker nodes.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate

Configuration parameters for customizing rolling upgrade behavior.

NOTE: The rolling update parameters can only be configured if upgradeRolloutStrategy.type is RollingUpdate.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge

Default: 1

This can not be 0 if maxUnavailable is 0.

The maximum number of machines that can be scheduled above the desired number of machines.

Example: When this is set to n, the new worker node group can be scaled up immediately by n when the rolling upgrade starts. Total number of machines in the cluster (old + new) never exceeds (desired number of machines + n). Once scale down happens and old machines are brought down, the new worker node group can be scaled up further ensuring that the total number of machines running at any time does not exceed the desired number of machines + n.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxUnavailable

Default: 0

This can not be 0 if MaxSurge is 0.

The maximum number of machines that can be unavailable during the upgrade.

This can only be configured for worker nodes.

Example: When this is set to n, the old worker node group can be scaled down by n machines immediately when the rolling upgrade starts. Once new machines are ready, old worker node group can be scaled down further, followed by scaling up the new worker node group, ensuring that the total number of machines unavailable at all times during the upgrade never falls below n.

Rolling Upgrades

The RollingUpdate rollout strategy type allows the specification of two parameters that control the desired behavior of rolling upgrades:

  • maxSurge - The maximum number of machines that can be scheduled above the desired number of machines. When not specified, the current CAPI default of 1 is used.
  • maxUnavailable - The maximum number of machines that can be unavailable during the upgrade. When not specified, the current CAPI default of 0 is used.

Example configuration:

upgradeRolloutStrategy:
  type: RollingUpdate
  rollingUpdate:
    maxSurge: 1
    maxUnavailable: 0    # only configurable for worker nodes

Rolling upgrades with no additional hardware

When maxSurge is set to 0 and maxUnavailable is set to 1, it allows for a rolling upgrade without need for additional hardware. Use this configuration if your workloads can tolerate node unavailability.

NOTE: This could ONLY be used if unavailability of a maximum of 1 node is acceptable. For single node clusters, an additional temporary machine is a must. Alternatively, you may recreate the single node cluster for upgrading and handle data recovery manually.

With this kind of configuration, the rolling upgrade will proceed node by node, deprovision and delete a node fully before re-provisioning it with upgraded version, and re-join it to the cluster. This means that any point during the course of the rolling upgrade, there could be one unavailable node.

In-Place Upgrades

As of EKS Anywhere version v0.19.0, the InPlace rollout strategy type can be used to upgrade the EKS Anywhere and Kubernetes versions by upgrading the components on the same physical machines without requiring additional server capacity. EKS Anywhere schedules a privileged pod that executes the upgrade logic as a sequence of init containers on each node to be upgraded. This upgrade logic includes updating the containerd, cri-tools, kubeadm, kubectl and kubelet binaries along with core Kubernetes components and restarting those services.

Due to the nature of this upgrade, temporary downtime of workloads can be expected. It is best practice to configure your clusters in a way that they are resilient to having one node down.

During in place upgrades, EKS Anywhere pauses machine health checks to ensure that new nodes are not rolled out while the node is temporarily down during the upgrade process. Moreover, autoscaler configuration is not supported when using InPlace upgrade rollout strategy to further ensure that no new nodes are rolled out unexpectedly.

Example configuration:

upgradeRolloutStrategy:
  type: InPlace

Troubleshooting

Attempting to upgrade a cluster with more than 1 minor release will result in receiving the following error.

✅ validate immutable fields
❌ validation failed    {"validation": "Upgrade preflight validations", "error": "validation failed with 1 errors: WARNING: version difference between upgrade version (1.21) and server version (1.19) do not meet the supported version increment of +1", "remediation": ""}
Error: failed to upgrade cluster: validations failed

For more errors you can see the troubleshooting section .

2.3 - Upgrade vSphere, CloudStack, Nutanix, or Snow cluster

How to perform vSphere, CloudStack, Nutanix, or Snow cluster upgrades

Considerations

  • Upgrades should never be run from ephemeral nodes (short-lived systems that spin up and down on a regular basis). If the EKS Anywhere version is lower than v0.18.0 and upgrade fails, you must not delete the KinD bootstrap cluster Docker container. During an upgrade, the bootstrap cluster contains critical EKS Anywhere components. If it is deleted after a failed upgrade, they cannot be recovered.
  • It is highly recommended to run the eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster command with the --no-timeouts option when the command is executed through automation. This prevents the CLI from timing out and enables cluster operators to fix issues preventing the upgrade from completing while the process is running.
  • In EKS Anywhere version v0.13.0, we introduced the EKS Anywhere cluster lifecycle controller that runs on management clusters and manages workload clusters. The EKS Anywhere lifecycle controller enables you to use Kubernetes API-compatible clients such as kubectl, GitOps, or Terraform for managing workload clusters. In this EKS Anywhere version, the EKS Anywhere cluster lifecycle controller rolls out new nodes in workload clusters when management clusters are upgraded. In EKS Anywhere version v0.16.0, this behavior was changed such that management clusters can be upgraded separately from workload clusters.
  • When running workload cluster upgrades after upgrading a management cluster, a machine rollout may be triggered on workload clusters during the workload cluster upgrade, even if the changes to the workload cluster spec didn’t require one (for example scaling down a worker node group).
  • Starting with EKS Anywhere v0.18.0, the image/template must include the Kubernetes minor version (Cluster.Spec.KubernetesVersion or Cluster.Spec.WorkerNodeGroupConfiguration[].KubernetesVersion in the cluster spec). For example, if the Kubernetes version is 1.24, the image/template must include 1.24, 1_24, 1-24 or 124. If you are upgrading Kubernetes versions, you must have a new image with your target Kubernetes version components.
  • If you are running EKS Anywhere on Snow, a new Admin instance is needed when upgrading to new versions of EKS Anywhere. See Upgrade EKS Anywhere AMIs in Snowball Edge devices to upgrade and use a new Admin instance in Snow devices.
  • If you are running EKS Anywhere in an airgapped environment, you must download the new artifacts and images prior to initiating the upgrade. Reference the Airgapped Upgrades page page for more information.

Upgrade Version Skew

There are a few dimensions of versioning to consider in your EKS Anywhere deployments:

  • Management clusters to workload clusters: Management clusters can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of workload clusters. Workload clusters cannot have an EKS Anywhere version greater than management clusters.
  • Management components to cluster components: Management components can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of cluster components.
  • EKS Anywhere version upgrades: Skipping EKS Anywhere minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v0.17.x to v0.19.x). We recommend you upgrade one EKS Anywhere minor version at a time (v0.17.x to v0.18.x to v0.19.x).
  • Kubernetes version upgrades: Skipping Kubernetes minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v1.26.x to v1.28.x). You must upgrade one Kubernetes minor version at a time (v1.26.x to v1.27.x to v1.28.x).
  • Kubernetes control plane and worker nodes: As of Kubernetes v1.28, worker nodes can be up to 3 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version. In earlier Kubernetes versions, worker nodes could be up to 2 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version.

Prepare DHCP IP addresses pool

Please make sure to have sufficient available IP addresses in your DHCP pool to cover the new machines. The number of necessary IPs can be calculated from the machine counts and maxSurge config . For create operation, each machine needs 1 IP. For upgrade operation, control plane and workers need just 1 extra IP (total, not per node) due to rolling upgrade strategy. Each external etcd machine needs 1 extra IP address (ex: 3 etcd nodes would require 3 more IP addresses) because EKS Anywhere needs to create all the new etcd machines before removing any old ones. You will also need additional IPs to be equal to the number used for maxSurge. After calculating the required IPs, please make sure your environment has enough available IPs before performing the upgrade operation.

  • Example 1, to create a cluster with 3 control plane node, 2 worker nodes and 3 stacked etcd, you will need at least 5 (3+2+0, as stacked etcd is deployed as part of the control plane nodes) available IPs. To upgrade the same cluster with default maxSurge (0), you will need 1 (1+0+0) additional available IPs.
  • Example 2, to create a cluster with 1 control plane node, 2 worker nodes and 3 unstacked (external) etcd nodes, you will need at least 6 (1+2+3) available IPs. To upgrade the same cluster with default maxSurge (0), you will need at least 4 (1+3+0) additional available IPs.
  • Example 3, to upgrade a cluster with 1 control plane node, 2 worker nodes and 3 unstacked (external) etcd nodes, with maxSurge set to 2, you will need at least 6 (1+3+2) additional available IPs.

Check upgrade components

Before you perform an upgrade, check the current and new versions of components that are ready to upgrade by typing:

Management Cluster

eksctl anywhere upgrade plan cluster -f mgmt-cluster.yaml

Workload Cluster

eksctl anywhere upgrade plan cluster -f workload-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig

The output should appear similar to the following:

Checking new release availability...
NAME                 CURRENT VERSION                 NEXT VERSION
EKS-A Management     v0.19.0-dev+build.170+6a04c21   v0.19.0-dev+build.225+c137128
cert-manager         v1.13.2+a34c207                 v1.14.2+c0da11a
cluster-api          v1.6.1+9bf197f                  v1.6.2+f120729
kubeadm              v1.6.1+2c7274d                  v1.6.2+8091cf6
vsphere              v1.8.5+205ebc5                  v1.8.5+65d2d66
kubeadm              v1.6.1+46e4754                  v1.6.2+44d7c68
etcdadm-bootstrap    v1.0.10+43a3235                 v1.0.10+e5e6ac4
etcdadm-controller   v1.0.17+fc882de                 v1.0.17+3d9ebdc

To the format output in json, add -o json to the end of the command line.

Performing a cluster upgrade

To perform a cluster upgrade you can modify your cluster specification kubernetesVersion field to the desired version.

As an example, to upgrade a cluster with version 1.26 to 1.27 you would change your spec

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: dev
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1
    endpoint:
      host: "198.18.99.49"
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: VSphereMachineConfig
      name: dev
      ...
  kubernetesVersion: "1.27"
      ...

NOTE: If you have a custom machine image for your nodes you may also need to update your vsphereMachineConfig with a new template. Refer to vSphere Artifacts to build a new OVA template.

and then you will run the upgrade cluster command .

Upgrade cluster command

  • kubectl CLI: The cluster lifecycle feature lets you use kubectl to talk to the Kubernetes API to upgrade an EKS Anywhere cluster. For example, to use kubectl to upgrade a management or workload cluster, you can run:

    # Upgrade a management cluster with cluster name "mgmt"
    kubectl apply -f mgmt-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    # Upgrade a workload cluster with cluster name "eksa-w01"
    kubectl apply -f eksa-w01-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    

    To check the state of a cluster managed with the cluster lifecyle feature, use kubectl to show the cluster object with its status.

    The status field on the cluster object field holds information about the current state of the cluster.

    kubectl get clusters w01 -o yaml
    

    The cluster has been fully upgraded once the status of the Ready condition is marked True. See the cluster status guide for more information.

  • GitOps: See Manage separate workload clusters with GitOps

  • Terraform: See Manage separate workload clusters with Terraform

  • eksctl CLI: To upgrade an EKS Anywhere cluster with eksctl, run:

    # Upgrade a management cluster with cluster name "mgmt"
     eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster -f mgmt-cluster.yaml
    
    # Upgrade a workload cluster with cluster name "eksa-w01"
     eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster -f eksa-w01-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    

    As noted earlier, adding the --kubeconfig option tells eksctl to use the management cluster identified by that kubeconfig file to upgrade a different workload cluster.

    This will upgrade the cluster specification (if specified), upgrade the core components to the latest available versions and apply the changes using the provisioner controllers.

Output

Example output:

✅ control plane ready
✅ worker nodes ready
✅ nodes ready
✅ cluster CRDs ready
✅ cluster object present on workload cluster
✅ upgrade cluster kubernetes version increment
✅ validate immutable fields
🎉 all cluster upgrade preflight validations passed
Performing provider setup and validations
Ensuring etcd CAPI providers exist on management cluster before upgrade
Pausing GitOps cluster resources reconcile
Upgrading core components
Backing up management cluster's resources before upgrading
Upgrading management cluster
Updating Git Repo with new EKS-A cluster spec
Forcing reconcile Git repo with latest commit
Resuming GitOps cluster resources kustomization
Writing cluster config file
🎉 Cluster upgraded!
Cleaning up backup resources

Starting in EKS Anywhere v0.18.0, when upgrading management cluster the CLI depends on the EKS Anywhere Controller to perform the upgrade. In the event an issue occurs and the CLI times out, it may be possible to fix the issue and have the upgrade complete as the EKS Anywhere Controller will continually attempt to complete the upgrade.

During the workload cluster upgrade process, EKS Anywhere pauses the cluster controller reconciliation by adding the paused annotation anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused: true to the EKS Anywhere cluster, provider datacenterconfig and machineconfig resources, before the components upgrade. After upgrade completes, the annotations are removed so that the cluster controller resumes reconciling the cluster. If the CLI execution is interrupted or times out, the controller won’t reconcile changes to the EKS-A objects until these annotations are removed. You can re-run the CLI to restart the upgrade process or remove the annotations manually with kubectl.

Though not recommended, you can manually pause the EKS Anywhere cluster controller reconciliation to perform extended maintenance work or interact with Cluster API objects directly. To do it, you can add the paused annotation to the cluster resource:

kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com ${CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused=true

After finishing the task, make sure you resume the cluster reconciliation by removing the paused annotation, so that EKS Anywhere cluster controller can continue working as expected.

kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com ${CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused-

NOTE (vSphere only): If you are upgrading a vSphere cluster created using EKS Anywhere version prior to v0.16.0 that has the vSphere CSI Driver installed in it, please refer to the additional steps listed here before attempting an upgrade.

Upgradeable Cluster Attributes

EKS Anywhere upgrade supports upgrading more than just the kubernetesVersion, allowing you to upgrade a number of fields simultaneously with the same procedure.

Upgradeable Attributes

Cluster:

  • kubernetesVersion
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.count
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.machineGroupRef.name
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.count
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.machineGroupRef.name
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.kubernetesVersion (in case of modular upgrade)
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxUnavailable
  • externalEtcdConfiguration.machineGroupRef.name
  • identityProviderRefs (Only for kind:OIDCConfig, kind:AWSIamConfig is immutable)
  • gitOpsRef (Once set, you can’t change or delete the field’s content later)
  • registryMirrorConfiguration (for non-authenticated registry mirror)
    • endpoint
    • port
    • caCertContent
    • insecureSkipVerify

VSphereMachineConfig:

  • datastore
  • diskGiB
  • folder
  • memoryMiB
  • numCPUs
  • resourcePool
  • template
  • users

NutanixMachineConfig:

  • vcpusPerSocket
  • vcpuSockets
  • memorySize
  • image
  • cluster
  • subnet
  • systemDiskSize

SnowMachineConfig:

  • amiID
  • instanceType
  • physicalNetworkConnector
  • sshKeyName
  • devices
  • containersVolume
  • osFamily
  • network

CloudStackDatacenterConfig:

  • availabilityZones (Can add and remove availability zones provided at least 1 previously configured zone is still present)

CloudStackMachineConfig:

  • template
  • computeOffering
  • diskOffering
  • userCustomDetails
  • symlinks
  • users

OIDCConfig:

  • clientID
  • groupsClaim
  • groupsPrefix
  • issuerUrl
  • requiredClaims.claim
  • requiredClaims.value
  • usernameClaim
  • usernamePrefix

AWSIamConfig:

  • mapRoles
  • mapUsers

EKS Anywhere upgrade also supports adding more worker node groups post-creation. To add more worker node groups, modify your cluster config file to define the additional group(s). Example:

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: dev
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
     ...
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 2
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: VSphereMachineConfig
      name: my-cluster-machines
    name: md-0
  - count: 2
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: VSphereMachineConfig
      name: my-cluster-machines
    name: md-1
      ...

Worker node groups can use the same machineGroupRef as previous groups, or you can define a new machine configuration for your new group.

Advanced configuration for rolling upgrade

EKS Anywhere allows an optional configuration to customize the behavior of upgrades.

It allows the specification of Two parameters that control the desired behavior of rolling upgrades:

  • maxSurge - The maximum number of machines that can be scheduled above the desired number of machines. When not specified, the current CAPI default of 1 is used.
  • maxUnavailable - The maximum number of machines that can be unavailable during the upgrade. When not specified, the current CAPI default of 0 is used.

Example configuration:

upgradeRolloutStrategy:
  type: RollingUpdate
  rollingUpdate:
    maxSurge: 1
    maxUnavailable: 0    # only configurable for worker nodes

‘upgradeRolloutStrategy’ configuration can be specified separately for control plane and for each worker node group. This template contains an example for control plane under the ‘controlPlaneConfiguration’ section and for worker node group under ‘workerNodeGroupConfigurations’:

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: my-cluster-name
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1
    endpoint:
      host: "xx.xx.xx.xx"
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: VSphereMachineConfig
      name: my-cluster-name-cp
    upgradeRolloutStrategy:
      type: RollingUpdate
      rollingUpdate:
        maxSurge: 1 
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 2
    machineGroupRef:
      kind: VSphereMachineConfig
      name: my-cluster-name 
    name: md-0
    upgradeRolloutStrategy:
      type: RollingUpdate
      rollingUpdate:
        maxSurge: 1
        maxUnavailable: 0

---
...

upgradeRolloutStrategy

Configuration parameters for upgrade strategy.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.type

Type of rollout strategy. Currently only RollingUpdate is supported.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate

Configuration parameters for customizing rolling upgrade behavior.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxSurge

Default: 1

This can not be 0 if maxUnavailable is 0.

The maximum number of machines that can be scheduled above the desired number of machines.

Example: When this is set to n, the new worker node group can be scaled up immediately by n when the rolling upgrade starts. Total number of machines in the cluster (old + new) never exceeds (desired number of machines + n). Once scale down happens and old machines are brought down, the new worker node group can be scaled up further ensuring that the total number of machines running at any time does not exceed the desired number of machines + n.

upgradeRolloutStrategy.rollingUpdate.maxUnavailable

Default: 0

This can not be 0 if MaxSurge is 0.

The maximum number of machines that can be unavailable during the upgrade.

Example: When this is set to n, the old worker node group can be scaled down by n machines immediately when the rolling upgrade starts. Once new machines are ready, old worker node group can be scaled down further, followed by scaling up the new worker node group, ensuring that the total number of machines unavailable at all times during the upgrade never falls below n.

Resume upgrade after failure

EKS Anywhere supports re-running the upgrade command post-failure as an experimental feature. If the upgrade command fails, the user can manually fix the issue (when applicable) and simply rerun the same command. At this point, the CLI will skip the completed tasks, restore the state of the operation, and resume the upgrade process. The completed tasks are stored in the generated folder as a file named <clusterName>-checkpoint.yaml.

This feature is experimental. To enable this feature, export the following environment variable:
export CHECKPOINT_ENABLED=true

Troubleshooting

Attempting to upgrade a cluster with more than 1 minor release will result in receiving the following error.

✅ validate immutable fields
❌ validation failed    {"validation": "Upgrade preflight validations", "error": "validation failed with 1 errors: WARNING: version difference between upgrade version (1.21) and server version (1.19) do not meet the supported version increment of +1", "remediation": ""}
Error: failed to upgrade cluster: validations failed

For more errors you can see the troubleshooting section .

2.4 - Upgrade airgapped cluster

Upgrading EKS Anywhere clusters in airgapped environments

The procedure to upgrade EKS Anywhere clusters in airgapped environments is similar to the procedure for creating new clusters in airgapped environments. The only difference is that you must upgrade your eksctl anywhere CLI before running the steps to download and import the EKS Anywhere dependencies to your local registry mirror.

Prerequisites

  • An existing Admin machine
  • The upgraded version of the eksctl anywhere CLI installed on the Admin machine
  • Docker running on the Admin machine
  • At least 80GB in storage space on the Admin machine to temporarily store the EKS Anywhere images locally before importing them to your local registry. Currently, when downloading images, EKS Anywhere pulls all dependencies for all infrastructure providers and supported Kubernetes versions.
  • The download and import images commands must be run on an amd64 machine to import amd64 images to the registry mirror.

Procedure

  1. Download the EKS Anywhere artifacts that contain the list and locations of the EKS Anywhere dependencies. A compressed file eks-anywhere-downloads.tar.gz will be downloaded. You can use the eksctl anywhere download artifacts --dry-run command to see the list of artifacts it will download.

    eksctl anywhere download artifacts
    
  2. Decompress the eks-anywhere-downloads.tar.gz file using the following command. This will create an eks-anywhere-downloads folder.

    tar -xvf eks-anywhere-downloads.tar.gz
    
  3. Download the EKS Anywhere image dependencies to the Admin machine. This command may take several minutes (10+) to complete. To monitor the progress of the command, you can run with the -v 6 command line argument, which will show details of the images that are being pulled. Docker must be running for the following command to succeed.

    eksctl anywhere download images -o images.tar
    
  4. Set up a local registry mirror to host the downloaded EKS Anywhere images and configure your Admin machine with the certificates and authentication information if your registry requires it. For details, refer to the Registry Mirror Configuration documentation.

  5. Import images to the local registry mirror using the following command. Set REGISTRY_MIRROR_URL to the url of the local registry mirror you created in the previous step. This command may take several minutes to complete. To monitor the progress of the command, you can run with the -v 6 command line argument.

    export REGISTRY_MIRROR_URL=<registryurl>
    
    eksctl anywhere import images -i images.tar -r ${REGISTRY_MIRROR_URL} \
       --bundles ./eks-anywhere-downloads/bundle-release.yaml
    
  6. Optionally import curated packages to your registry mirror. The curated packages images are copied from Amazon ECR to your local registry mirror in a single step, as opposed to separate download and import steps. For post-cluster creation steps, reference the Curated Packages documentation.

    Expand for curated packages instructions

    If your EKS Anywhere cluster is running in an airgapped environment, and you set up a local registry mirror, you can copy curated packages from Amazon ECR to your local registry mirror with the following command.

    Set $KUBEVERSION to be equal to the spec.kubernetesVersion of your EKS Anywhere cluster specification.

    The copy packages command uses the credentials in your docker config file. So you must docker login to the source registries and the destination registry before running the command.

    eksctl anywhere copy packages \
      ${REGISTRY_MIRROR_URL}/curated-packages \
      --kube-version $KUBEVERSION \
      --src-chart-registry public.ecr.aws/eks-anywhere \
      --src-image-registry 783794618700.dkr.ecr.us-west-2.amazonaws.com
    

If the previous steps succeeded, all of the required EKS Anywhere dependencies are now present in your local registry. Before you upgrade your EKS Anywhere cluster, configure registryMirrorConfiguration in your EKS Anywhere cluster specification with the information for your local registry. For details see the Registry Mirror Configuration documentation.

NOTE: If you are running EKS Anywhere on bare metal, you must configure osImageURL and hookImagesURLPath in your EKS Anywhere cluster specification with the location of the upgraded node operating system image and hook OS image. For details, reference the bare metal configuration documentation.

Next Steps

2.5 - Upgrade management components

How to upgrade EKS Anywhere management components

What are management components?

Management components run on management or standalone clusters and are responsible for managing the lifecycle of workload clusters. Management components include but are not limited to:

  • Cluster API controller
  • EKS Anywhere cluster lifecycle controller
  • Curated Packages controller
  • Provider-specific controllers (vSphere, Tinkerbell etc.)
  • Tinkerbell services (Boots, Hegel, Rufio, etc.)
  • Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs) (clusters, eksareleases, etc.)

Why upgrade management components separately?

The existing eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster command, when run against management or standalone clusters, upgrades both the management and cluster components. When upgrading versions, this upgrade process performs a rolling replacement of nodes in the cluster, which brings operational complexity, and should be carefully planned and executed.

With the new eksctl anywhere upgrade management-components command, you can upgrade management components separately from cluster components. This enables you to get the latest updates to the management components such as Cluster API controller, EKS Anywhere controller, and provider-specific controllers without a rolling replacement of nodes in the cluster, which reduces the operational complexity of the operation.

Check management components versions

You can check the current and new versions of management components with the eksctl anywhere upgrade plan management-components command:

eksctl anywhere upgrade plan management-components -f management-cluster.yaml

The output should appear similar to the following:

NAME                 CURRENT VERSION       NEXT VERSION
EKS-A Management     v0.18.3+cc70180       v0.19.0+a672f31
cert-manager         v1.13.0+68bec33       v1.13.2+a34c207
cluster-api          v1.5.2+b14378d        v1.6.0+04c07bc
kubeadm              v1.5.2+5762149        v1.6.0+5bf0931
vsphere              v1.7.4+6ecf386        v1.8.5+650acfa
etcdadm-bootstrap    v1.0.10+c9a5a8a       v1.0.10+1ceb898
etcdadm-controller   v1.0.16+0ed68e6       v1.0.17+5e33062

Alternatively, you can run the eksctl anywhere upgrade plan cluster command against your management cluster, which shows the version differences for both management and cluster components.

Upgrade management components

To perform the management components upgrade, run the following command:

eksctl anywhere upgrade management-components -f management-cluster.yaml

The output should appear similar to the following:

Performing setup and validations
✅ Docker provider validation
✅ Control plane ready
✅ Cluster CRDs ready
Upgrading core components
Installing new eksa components
🎉 Management components upgraded!

At this point, a new eksaVersion custom resource will be available in your management cluster, which means new cluster components that correspond to the eksaVersion are available for cluster upgrades. You can subsequently run a workload cluster upgrade with the eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster command, or by updating eksaVersion field in your workload cluster’s spec and applying it to your management cluster with Kubernetes API-compatible tooling such as kubectl, GitOps, or Terraform.

2.6 -

There are a few dimensions of versioning to consider in your EKS Anywhere deployments:

  • Management clusters to workload clusters: Management clusters can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of workload clusters. Workload clusters cannot have an EKS Anywhere version greater than management clusters.
  • Management components to cluster components: Management components can be at most 1 EKS Anywhere minor version greater than the EKS Anywhere version of cluster components.
  • EKS Anywhere version upgrades: Skipping EKS Anywhere minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v0.17.x to v0.19.x). We recommend you upgrade one EKS Anywhere minor version at a time (v0.17.x to v0.18.x to v0.19.x).
  • Kubernetes version upgrades: Skipping Kubernetes minor versions during upgrade is not supported (v1.26.x to v1.28.x). You must upgrade one Kubernetes minor version at a time (v1.26.x to v1.27.x to v1.28.x).
  • Kubernetes control plane and worker nodes: As of Kubernetes v1.28, worker nodes can be up to 3 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version. In earlier Kubernetes versions, worker nodes could be up to 2 minor versions lower than the Kubernetes control plane minor version.

3 - Scale cluster

How to scale your cluster

3.1 - Scale Bare Metal cluster

How to scale your Bare Metal cluster

Scaling nodes on Bare Metal clusters

When you are horizontally scaling your Bare Metal EKS Anywhere cluster, consider the number of nodes you need for your control plane and for your data plane.

See the Kubernetes Components documentation to learn the differences between the control plane and the data plane (worker nodes).

Horizontally scaling the cluster is done by increasing the number for the control plane or worker node groups under the Cluster specification.

NOTE: If etcd is running on your control plane (the default configuration) you should scale your control plane in odd numbers (3, 5, 7…).

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: test-cluster
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your control plane
...    
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your data plane

Next, you must ensure you have enough available hardware for the scale-up operation to function. Available hardware could have been fed to the cluster as extra hardware during a prior create command, or could be fed to the cluster during the scale-up process by providing the hardware CSV file to the upgrade cluster command (explained in detail below). For scale-down operation, you can skip directly to the upgrade cluster command .

To check if you have enough available hardware for scale up, you can use the kubectl command below to check if there are hardware with the selector labels corresponding to the controlplane/worker node group and without the ownerName label.

kubectl get hardware -n eksa-system --show-labels

For example, if you want to scale a worker node group with selector label type=worker-group-1, then you must have an additional hardware object in your cluster with the label type=worker-group-1 that doesn’t have the ownerName label.

In the command shown below, eksa-worker2 matches the selector label and it doesn’t have the ownerName label. Thus, it can be used to scale up worker-group-1 by 1.

kubectl get hardware -n eksa-system --show-labels 
NAME                STATE       LABELS
eksa-controlplane               type=controlplane,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerName=abhnvp-control-plane-template-1656427179688-9rm5f,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerNamespace=eksa-system
eksa-worker1                    type=worker-group-1,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerName=abhnvp-md-0-1656427179689-9fqnx,v1alpha1.tinkerbell.org/ownerNamespace=eksa-system
eksa-worker2                    type=worker-group-1

If you don’t have any available hardware that match this requirement in the cluster, you can setup a new hardware CSV . You can feed this hardware inventory file during the upgrade cluster command .

Upgrade Cluster Command for Scale Up/Down

  1. eksctl CLI: To upgrade a workload cluster with eksctl, run:

    eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster 
    -f cluster.yaml 
    # --hardware-csv <hardware.csv> \ # uncomment to add more hardware
    --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    

    As noted earlier, adding the --kubeconfig option tells eksctl to use the management cluster identified by that kubeconfig file to create a different workload cluster.

  2. kubectl CLI: The cluster lifecycle feature lets you use kubectl to talk to the Kubernetes API to upgrade a workload cluster. To use kubectl, run:

    kubectl apply -f eksa-w01-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig mgmt/mgmt-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    

    To check the state of a cluster managed with the cluster lifecyle feature, use kubectl to show the cluster object with its status.

    The status field on the cluster object field holds information about the current state of the cluster.

    kubectl get clusters w01 -o yaml
    

    The cluster has been fully upgraded once the status of the Ready condition is marked True. See the cluster status guide for more information.

  3. GitOps: See Manage separate workload clusters with GitOps

  4. Terraform: See Manage separate workload clusters with Terraform

    NOTE:For kubectl, GitOps and Terraform:

    • The baremetal controller does not support scaling upgrades and Kubernetes version upgrades in the same request.
    • While scaling workload cluster if you need to add additional machines, run:
      eksctl anywhere generate hardware -z updated-hardware.csv > updated-hardware.yaml
      kubectl apply -f updated-hardware.yaml
      
    • For scaling multiple workload clusters, it is essential that the hardware that will be used for scaling up clusters has labels and selectors that are unique to the target workload cluster. For instance, for an EKSA cluster named eksa-workload1, the hardware that is assigned for this cluster should have labels that are only going to be used for this cluster like type=eksa-workload1-cp and type=eksa-workload1-worker. Another workload cluster named eksa-workload2 can have labels like type=eksa-workload2-cp and type=eksa-workload2-worker. Please note that even though labels can be arbitrary, they need to be unique for each workload cluster. Not specifying unique cluster labels can cause cluster upgrades to behave in unexpected ways which may lead to unsuccessful upgrades and unstable clusters.

Autoscaling

EKS Anywhere supports autoscaling of worker node groups using the Kubernetes Cluster Autoscaler and as a curated package .

See here and as a curated package for details on how to configure your cluster spec to autoscale worker node groups for autoscaling.

3.2 - Scale CloudStack cluster

How to scale your CloudStack cluster

When you are scaling your CloudStack EKS Anywhere cluster, consider the number of nodes you need for your control plane and for your data plane. In each case you can scale the cluster manually or automatically.

See the Kubernetes Components documentation to learn the differences between the control plane and the data plane (worker nodes).

Manual cluster scaling

NOTE: If etcd is running on your control plane (the default configuration) you should scale your control plane in odd numbers (3, 5, 7, and so on).

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: test-cluster
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your control plane
...    
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your data plane

Once you have made configuration updates, you can use eksctl, kubectl, GitOps, or Terraform specified in the upgrade cluster command to apply those changes. If you are adding or removing a node, only the terminated nodes will be affected.

Autoscaling

EKS Anywhere supports autoscaling of worker node groups using the Kubernetes Cluster Autoscaler and as a curated package .

See here for details on how to configure your cluster spec to autoscale worker node groups for autoscaling.

3.3 - Scale Nutanix cluster

How to scale your Nutanix cluster

When you are scaling your Nutanix EKS Anywhere cluster, consider the number of nodes you need for your control plane and for your data plane. Each plane can be scaled horizontally (add more nodes) or vertically (provide nodes with more resources). In each case you can scale the cluster manually or automatically.

See the Kubernetes Components documentation to learn the differences between the control plane and the data plane (worker nodes).

Manual cluster scaling

Horizontally scaling the cluster is done by increasing the number for the control plane or worker node groups under the Cluster specification.

NOTE: If etcd is running on your control plane (the default configuration) you should scale your control plane in odd numbers (3, 5, 7…).

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: test-cluster
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your control plane
...    
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your data plane

Vertically scaling your cluster is done by updating the machine config spec for your infrastructure provider. For a Nutanix cluster an example is

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1
kind: NutanixMachineConfig
metadata:
  name: test-machine
  namespace: default
spec:
  systemDiskSize: 50    # increase this number to make the VM disk larger
  vcpuSockets: 8        # increase this number to add vCPUs to your VM
  memorySize: 8192      # increase this number to add memory to your VM

Once you have made configuration updates, you can use eksctl, kubectl, GitOps, or Terraform specified in the upgrade cluster command to apply those changes. If you are adding or removing a node, only the terminated nodes will be affected. If you are vertically scaling your nodes, then all nodes will be replaced one at a time.

Autoscaling

EKS Anywhere supports autoscaling of worker node groups using the Kubernetes Cluster Autoscaler and as a curated package .

See here and as a curated package for details on how to configure your cluster spec to autoscale worker node groups for autoscaling.

3.4 - Scale vSphere cluster

How to scale your vSphere cluster

When you are scaling your vSphere EKS Anywhere cluster, consider the number of nodes you need for your control plane and for your data plane. Each plane can be scaled horizontally (add more nodes) or vertically (provide nodes with more resources). In each case you can scale the cluster manually or automatically.

See the Kubernetes Components documentation to learn the differences between the control plane and the data plane (worker nodes).

Manual cluster scaling

Horizontally scaling the cluster is done by increasing the number for the control plane or worker node groups under the Cluster specification.

NOTE: If etcd is running on your control plane (the default configuration) you should scale your control plane in odd numbers (3, 5, 7…).

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: test-cluster
spec:
  controlPlaneConfiguration:
    count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your control plane
...    
  workerNodeGroupConfigurations:
  - count: 1     # increase this number to horizontally scale your data plane

Vertically scaling your cluster is done by updating the machine config spec for your infrastructure provider. For a vSphere cluster an example is

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1
kind: VSphereMachineConfig
metadata:
  name: test-machine
  namespace: default
spec:
  diskGiB: 25       # increase this number to make the VM disk larger
  numCPUs: 2        # increase this number to add vCPUs to your VM
  memoryMiB: 8192   # increase this number to add memory to your VM

Once you have made configuration updates, you can use eksctl, kubectl, GitOps, or Terraform specified in the upgrade cluster command to apply those changes. If you are adding or removing a node, only the terminated nodes will be affected. If you are vertically scaling your nodes, then all nodes will be replaced one at a time.

Autoscaling

EKS Anywhere supports autoscaling of worker node groups using the Kubernetes Cluster Autoscaler and as a curated package .

See here and as a curated package for details on how to configure your cluster spec to autoscale worker node groups for autoscaling.

4 - Networking

Managing networking

4.1 - Secure connectivity with CNI and Network Policy

How to validate the setup of Cilium CNI and deploy network policies to secure workload connectivity.

EKS Anywhere uses Cilium for pod networking and security.

Cilium is installed by default as a Kubernetes CNI plugin and so is already running in your EKS Anywhere cluster.

This section provides information about:

  • Understanding Cilium components and requirements

  • Validating your Cilium networking setup.

  • Using Cilium to securing workload connectivity using Kubernetes Network Policy.

Cilium Features

The following table lists Cilium features and notes which of those features are built into EKS Anywhere’s default Cilium version , upstream Open Source, and Cilium Enterprise.

Expand to see Cilium Features
Headline/Feature   EKS Anywhere Default Cilium   Cilium OSS   Isovalent Cilium Enterprise
Networking Routing (CNI)                   
Identity-Based Network Policy (Labels, CIDR)                   
Load-Balancing (L3/L4)                   
Advanced Network Policy & Encryption (DNS, L7, TLS/SNI, …)                   
Ingress, Gateway API, & Service Mesh                   
Multi-Cluster, Egress Gateway, BGP                   
Hubble Network Observability (Metrics, Logs, Prometheus, Grafana, OpenTelemetry)                   
SIEM Integration & Timescape Observability Storage                   
Tetragon Runtime Security                   
Enterprise-hardened Cilium Distribution, Training, 24x7 Enterprise Grade Support                   

Cilium Components

The primary Cilium Agent runs as a DaemonSet on each Kubernetes node. Each cluster also includes a Cilium Operator Deployment to handle certain cluster-wide operations. For EKS Anywhere, Cilium is configured to use the Kubernetes API server as the identity store, so no etcd cluster connectivity is required.

In a properly working environment, each Kubernetes node should have a Cilium Agent pod (cilium-WXYZ) in “Running” and ready (1/1) state. By default there will be two Cilium Operator pods (cilium-operator-123456-WXYZ) in “Running” and ready (1/1) state on different Kubernetes nodes for high-availability.

Run the following command to ensure all cilium related pods are in a healthy state.

kubectl get pods -n kube-system | grep cilium

Example output for this command in a 3 node environment is:

kube-system   cilium-fsjmd                                1/1     Running           0          4m
kube-system   cilium-nqpkv                                1/1     Running           0          4m
kube-system   cilium-operator-58ff67b8cd-jd7rf            1/1     Running           0          4m
kube-system   cilium-operator-58ff67b8cd-kn6ss            1/1     Running           0          4m
kube-system   cilium-zz4mt                                1/1     Running           0          4m

Network Connectivity Requirements

To provide pod connectivity within an on-premises environment, the Cilium agent implements an overlay network using the GENEVE tunneling protocol. As a result, UDP port 6081 connectivity MUST be allowed by any firewall running between Kubernetes nodes running the Cilium agent.

Allowing ICMP Ping (type = 8, code = 0) as well as TCP port 4240 is also recommended in order for Cilium Agents to validate node-to-node connectivity as part of internal status reporting.

Validating Connectivity

Cilium includes a connectivity check YAML that can be deployed into a test namespace in order to validate proper installation and connectivity within a Kubernetes cluster. If the connectivity check passes, all pods created by the YAML manifest will reach “Running” and ready (1/1) state. We recommend running this test only once you have multiple worker nodes in your environment to ensure you are validating cross-node connectivity.

It is important that this test is run in a dedicated namespace, with no existing network policy. For example:

kubectl create ns cilium-test
kubectl apply -n cilium-test -f https://docs.isovalent.com/v1.10/public/connectivity-check-eksa.yaml

Once all pods have started, simply checking the status of pods in this namespace will indicate whether the tests have passed:

kubectl get pods -n cilium-test

Successful test output will show all pods in a “Running” and ready (1/1) state:

NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
echo-a-d576c5f8b-zlfsk                                   1/1     Running   0          59s
echo-b-787dc99778-sxlcc                                  1/1     Running   0          59s
echo-b-host-675cd8cfff-qvvv8                             1/1     Running   0          59s
host-to-b-multi-node-clusterip-6fd884bcf7-pvj5d          1/1     Running   0          58s
host-to-b-multi-node-headless-79f7df47b9-8mzbp           1/1     Running   0          58s
pod-to-a-57695cc7ff-6tqpv                                1/1     Running   0          59s
pod-to-a-allowed-cnp-7b6d5ff99f-4rhrs                    1/1     Running   0          59s
pod-to-a-denied-cnp-6887b57579-zbs2t                     1/1     Running   0          59s
pod-to-b-intra-node-hostport-7d656d7bb9-6zjrl            1/1     Running   0          57s
pod-to-b-intra-node-nodeport-569d7c647-76gn5             1/1     Running   0          58s
pod-to-b-multi-node-clusterip-fdf45bbbc-8l4zz            1/1     Running   0          59s
pod-to-b-multi-node-headless-64b6cbdd49-9hcqg            1/1     Running   0          59s
pod-to-b-multi-node-hostport-57fc8854f5-9d8m8            1/1     Running   0          58s
pod-to-b-multi-node-nodeport-54446bdbb9-5xhfd            1/1     Running   0          58s
pod-to-external-1111-56548587dc-rmj9f                    1/1     Running   0          59s
pod-to-external-fqdn-allow-google-cnp-5ff4986c89-z4h9j   1/1     Running   0          59s

Afterward, simply delete the namespace to clean-up the connectivity test:

kubectl delete ns cilium-test

Kubernetes Network Policy

By default, all Kubernetes workloads within a cluster can talk to any other workloads in the cluster, as well as any workloads outside the cluster. To enable a stronger security posture, Cilium implements the Kubernetes Network Policy specification to provide identity-aware firewalling / segmentation of Kubernetes workloads.

Network policies are defined as Kubernetes YAML specifications that are applied to a particular namespaces to describe that connections should be allowed to or from a given set of pods. These network policies are “identity-aware” in that they describe workloads within the cluster using Kubernetes metadata like namespace and labels, rather than by IP Address.

Basic network policies are validated as part of the above Cilium connectivity check test.

For next steps on leveraging Network Policy, we encourage you to explore:

Additional Cilium Features

Some advanced features of Cilium are not enabled as part of EKS Anywhere, including:

Please contact the EKS Anywhere team if you are interested in leveraging these advanced features along with EKS Anywhere.

4.2 - Replace EKS Anywhere Cilium with a custom CNI

Replace EKS Anywhere Cilium with a custom CNI

This page provides walkthroughs on replacing the EKS Anywhere Cilium with a custom CNI. For more information on CNI customization see Use a custom CNI .

Prerequisites

Add a custom CNI to a new cluster

If an operator intends to uninstall EKS Anywhere Cilium from a new cluster they can enable the skipUpgrade option when creating the cluster. Any future upgrades to the newly created cluster will not have EKS Anywhere Cilium upgraded.

  1. Generate a cluster configuration according to the Getting Started section.

  2. Modify the Cluster object’s spec.clusterNetwork.cniConfig.cilium.skipUpgrade field to equal true.

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
    name: eks-anywhere
spec:
  clusterNetwork:
    cniConfig:
      cilium:
        skipUpgrade: true
  ...
  1. Create the cluster according to the Getting Started guide.

  2. Pause reconciliation of the cluster. This ensures EKS Anywhere components do not attempt to remediate issues arising from a missing CNI.

kubectl --kubeconfig=MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG -n eksa-system annotate clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME cluster.x-k8s.io/paused=true
  1. Uninstall EKS Anywhere Cilium.

    cilium uninstall
    
  2. Install a custom CNI.

  3. Resume reconciliation of the cluster object.

kubectl --kubeconfig=MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG -n eksa-system annotate clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME cluster.x-k8s.io/paused-

Add a custom CNI to an existing cluster with eksctl

  1. Modify the existing Cluster object’s spec.clusterNetwork.cniConfig.cilium.skipUpgrade field to equal true.
apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
    name: eks-anywhere
spec:
  clusterNetwork:
    cniConfig:
      cilium:
        skipUpgrade: true
  ...
  1. Upgrade the EKS Anywhere cluster .

  2. Pause reconciliation of the cluster. This ensures EKS Anywhere components do not attempt to remediate issues arising from a missing CNI.

kubectl --kubeconfig=MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG -n eksa-system annotate clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME cluster.x-k8s.io/paused=true
  1. Uninstall EKS Anywhere Cilium.

    cilium uninstall
    
  2. Install a custom CNI.

  3. Resume reconciliation of the cluster object.

kubectl --kubeconfig=MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG -n eksa-system annotate clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME cluster.x-k8s.io/paused-

Add a custom CNI to an existing cluster with Lifecycle Controller

  1. Modify the existing Cluster object’s spec.clusterNetwork.cniConfig.cilium.skipUpgrade field to equal true.
apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
    name: eks-anywhere
spec:
  clusterNetwork:
    cniConfig:
      cilium:
        skipUpgrade: true
  ...
  1. Apply the cluster configuration to the cluster and await successful object reconciliation.

    kubectl apply -f <cluster config path>
    
  2. Pause reconciliation of the cluster. This ensures EKS Anywhere components do not attempt to remediate issues arising from a missing CNI.

kubectl --kubeconfig=MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG -n eksa-system annotate clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME cluster.x-k8s.io/paused=true
  1. Uninstall EKS Anywhere Cilium.
cilium uninstall
  1. Install a custom CNI.

  2. Resume reconciliation of the cluster object.

kubectl --kubeconfig=MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG -n eksa-system annotate clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME cluster.x-k8s.io/paused-

4.3 - Multus CNI plugin configuration

EKS Anywhere configuration for Multus CNI plugin

NOTE: Currently, Multus support is only available with the EKS Anywhere Bare Metal provider. The vSphere and CloudStack providers, do not have multi-network support for cluster machines. Once multiple network support is added to those clusters, Multus CNI can be supported.

Multus CNI is a container network interface plugin for Kubernetes that enables attaching multiple network interfaces to pods. In Kubernetes, each pod has only one network interface by default, other than local loopback. With Multus, you can create multi-homed pods that have multiple interfaces. Multus acts a as ‘meta’ plugin that can call other CNI plugins to configure additional interfaces.

Pre-Requisites

Given that Multus CNI is used to create pods with multiple network interfaces, the cluster machines that these pods run on need to have multiple network interfaces attached and configured. The interfaces on multi-homed pods need to map to these interfaces on the machines.

For Bare Metal clusters using the Tinkerbell provider, the cluster machines need to have multiple network interfaces cabled in and appropriate network configuration put in place during machine provisioning.

Overview of Multus setup

The following diagrams show the result of two applications (app1 and app2) running in pods that use the Multus plugin to communicate over two network interfaces (eth0 and net1) from within the pods. The Multus plugin uses two network interfaces on the worker node (eth0 and eth1) to provide communications outside of the node.

Multus allows pods to have multiple network interfaces

Follow the procedure below to set up Multus as illustrated in the previous diagrams.

Install and configure Multus

Deploying Multus using a Daemonset will spin up pods that install a Multus binary and configure Multus for usage in every node in the cluster. Here are the steps for doing that.

  1. Clone the Multus CNI repo:

    git clone https://github.com/k8snetworkplumbingwg/multus-cni.git && cd multus-cni
    
  2. Apply Multus daemonset to your EKS Anywhere cluster:

    kubectl apply -f ./deployments/multus-daemonset-thick-plugin.yml
    
  3. Verify that you have Multus pods running:

    kubectl get pods --all-namespaces | grep -i multus
    
  4. Check that Multus is running:

    kubectl get pods -A | grep multus
    

    Output:

    kube-system kube-multus-ds-bmfjs     1/1      Running      0      3d1h
    kube-system kube-multus-ds-fk2sk     1/1      Running      0      3d1h
    

Create Network Attachment Definition

You need to create a Network Attachment Definition for the CNI you wish to use as the plugin for the additional interface. You can verify that your intended CNI plugin is supported by ensuring that the binary corresponding to that CNI plugin is present in the node’s /opt/cni/bin directory.

Below is an example of a Network Attachment Definition yaml:

cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f -
apiVersion: "k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1"
kind: NetworkAttachmentDefinition
metadata:
   name: ipvlan-conf
spec:
   config: '{
      "cniVersion": "0.3.0",
      "type": "ipvlan",
      "master": "eth1",
      "mode": "l3",
      "ipam": {
         "type": "host-local",
         "subnet": "198.17.0.0/24",
         "rangeStart": "198.17.0.200",
         "rangeEnd": "198.17.0.216",
         "routes": [
             { "dst": "0.0.0.0/0" }
         ],
         "gateway": "198.17.0.1"
      }
 }'
EOF

Note that eth1 is used as the master parameter. This master parameter should match the interface name on the hosts in your cluster.

Verify the configuration

Type the following to verify the configuration you created:

kubectl get network-attachment-definitions
kubectl describe network-attachment-definitions ipvlan-conf

Deploy sample applications with network attachment

  1. Create a sample application 1 (app1) with network annotation created in the previous steps:

    cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f - 
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: app1
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/networks: ipvlan-conf
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: app1
        command: ["/bin/sh", "-c", "trap : TERM INT; sleep infinity & wait"]
        image: alpine
    EOF
    
  2. Create a sample application 2 (app2) with the network annotation created in the previous step:

    cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: app2
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/networks: ipvlan-conf
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: app2
        command: ["/bin/sh", "-c", "trap : TERM INT; sleep infinity & wait"]
        image: alpine
    EOF
    
  3. Verify that the additional interfaces were created on these application pods using the defined network attachment:

    kubectl exec -it app1 -- ip a                            
    

    Output:

    1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN qlen 1000
        link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
        inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    *2: net1@if3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP,M-DOWN> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
        link/ether 00:50:56:9a:84:3b brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 198.17.0.200/24 brd 198.17.0.255 scope global net1
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 fe80::50:5600:19a:843b/64 scope link 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever*
    31: eth0@if32: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP,M-DOWN> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP 
        link/ether 0a:9e:a0:b4:21:05 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 192.168.1.218/32 scope global eth0
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 fe80::89e:a0ff:feb4:2105/64 scope link 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    
    kubectl exec -it app2 -- ip a
    

    Output:

    1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN qlen 1000
        link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
        inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    *2: net1@if3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP,M-DOWN> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
        link/ether 00:50:56:9a:84:3b brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 198.17.0.201/24 brd 198.17.0.255 scope global net1
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 fe80::50:5600:29a:843b/64 scope link 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever*
    33: eth0@if34: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP,M-DOWN> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP 
        link/ether b2:42:0a:67:c0:48 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 192.168.1.210/32 scope global eth0
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 fe80::b042:aff:fe67:c048/64 scope link 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    

    Note that both pods got the new interface net1. Also, the additional network interface on each pod got assigned an IP address out of the range specified by the Network Attachment Definition.

  4. Test the network connectivity across these pods for Multus interfaces:

    kubectl exec -it app1 -- ping -I net1 198.17.0.201 
    

    Output:

    PING 198.17.0.201 (198.17.0.201): 56 data bytes
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.201: seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.074 ms
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.201: seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.077 ms
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.201: seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.078 ms
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.201: seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.077 ms
    
    kubectl exec -it app2 -- ping -I net1 198.17.0.200
    

    Output:

    PING 198.17.0.200 (198.17.0.200): 56 data bytes
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.200: seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.074 ms
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.200: seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.077 ms
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.200: seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.078 ms
    64 bytes from 198.17.0.200: seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.077 ms
    

5 - Storage

Managing storage

5.1 - vSphere storage

Managing storage on vSphere

EKS Anywhere clusters running on vSphere can leverage the vSphere Container Storage Plug-in (also called the vSphere CSI Driver ) for dynamic provisioning of persistent storage volumes on vSphere storage infrastructure. The CSI Driver integrates with the Cloud Native Storage (CNS) component in vCenter for the purpose of volume provisioning via vSAN, attaching and detaching volumes to/from VMs, mounting, formatting, and unmounting volumes on/from pods, snapshots, cloning, dynamic volume expansion, etc.

Bundled vSphere CSI Driver Removal

EKS Anywhere versions prior to v0.16.0 included built-in installation and management of the vSphere CSI Driver in EKS Anywhere clusters. The vSphere CSI driver components in EKS Anywhere included a Kubernetes CSI controller Deployment, a node-driver-registrar DaemonSet, a default Storage Class, and a number of related Secrets and RBAC entities.

In EKS Anywhere version v0.16.0, the built-in vSphere CSI driver feature was deprecated and was removed in EKS Anywhere version v0.17.0. You can still use the vSphere CSI driver with EKS Anywhere to make use of the storage options provided by vSphere in a Kubernetes-native way, but you must manage the installation and operation of the vSphere CSI driver on your EKS Anywhere clusters.

Refer to the vSphere CSI Driver documentation for the self-managed installation and management procedure. Refer to these compatibiltiy matrices to determine the correct version of the vSphere CSI Driver for the Kubernetes version and vSphere version you are running with EKS Anywhere.

vSphere CSI Driver Cleanup for Upgrades

If you are using an EKS Anywhere version v0.16.0 or below, you must remove the EKS Anywhere-managed version of the vSphere CSI driver prior to upgrading to EKS Anywhere version v0.17.0 or later. You do not need to run these steps if you are not using the EKS Anywhere-managed version of the vSphere CSI driver. If you are self-managing your vSphere CSI driver installation, it will persist through EKS Anywhere upgrades.

See below for instructions on how to remove the EKS Anywhere vSphere CSI driver objects. You must delete the DaemonSet and Deployment first, as they rely on the other resources.

default namespace

  • vsphere-csi-controller-role (kind: ClusterRole)
    kubectl delete clusterrole vsphere-csi-controller-role
    
  • vsphere-csi-controller-binding (kind: ClusterRoleBinding)
    kubectl delete clusterrolebinding vsphere-csi-controller-binding
    
  • csi.vsphere.vmware.com (kind: CSIDriver)
    kubectl delete csidriver csi.vsphere.vmware.com
    

kube-system namespace

  • vsphere-csi-node (kind: DaemonSet)
    kubectl delete daemonset vsphere-csi-node -n kube-system
    
  • vsphere-csi-controller (kind: Deployment)
    kubectl delete deployment vsphere-csi-controller -n kube-system
    
  • vsphere-csi-controller (kind: ServiceAccount)
    kubectl delete serviceaccount vsphere-csi-controller -n kube-system
    
  • csi-vsphere-config (kind: Secret)
    kubectl delete secret csi-vsphere-config -n kube-system
    

eksa-system namespace

  • <cluster-name>-csi (kind: ClusterResourceSet)
    kubectl delete clusterresourceset <cluster-name>-csi -n eksa-system
    

6 - Security

Securing your clusters

6.1 - Security best practices

Using security best practices with your EKS Anywhere deployments

If you discover a potential security issue in this project, we ask that you notify AWS/Amazon Security via our vulnerability reporting page . Please do not create a public GitHub issue for security problems.

This guide provides advice about best practices for EKS Anywhere specific security concerns. For a more complete treatment of Kubernetes security generally please refer to the official Kubernetes documentation on Securing a Cluster and the Amazon EKS Best Practices Guide for Security .

The Shared Responsibility Model and EKS-A

AWS Cloud Services follow the Shared Responsibility Model, where AWS is responsible for security “of” the cloud, while the customer is responsible for security “in” the cloud. However, EKS Anywhere is an open-source tool and the distribution of responsibility differs from that of a managed cloud service like EKS.

AWS Responsibilities

AWS is responsible for building and delivering a secure tool. This tool will provision an initially secure Kubernetes cluster.

AWS is responsible for vetting and securely sourcing the services and tools packaged with EKS Anywhere and the cluster it creates (such as CoreDNS, Cilium, Flux, CAPI, and govc).

The EKS Anywhere build and delivery infrastructure, or supply chain, is secured to the standard of any AWS service and AWS takes responsibility for the secure and reliable delivery of a quality product which provisions a secure and stable Kubernetes cluster. When the eksctl anywhere plugin is executed, EKS Anywhere components are automatically downloaded from AWS. eksctl will then perform checksum verification on the components to ensure their authenticity.

AWS is responsible for the secure development and testing of the EKS Anywhere controller and associated custom resource definitions.

AWS is responsible for the secure development and testing of the EKS Anywhere CLI, and ensuring it handles sensitive data and cluster resources securely.

End user responsibilities

The end user is responsible for the entire EKS Anywhere cluster after it has been provisioned. AWS provides a mechanism to upgrade the cluster in-place, but it is the responsibility of the end user to perform that upgrade using the provided tools. End users are responsible for operating their clusters in accordance with Kubernetes security best practices, and for the ongoing security of the cluster after it has been provisioned. This includes but is not limited to:

  • creation or modification of RBAC roles and bindings
  • creation or modification of namespaces
  • modification of the default container network interface plugin
  • configuration of network ingress and load balancing
  • use and configuration of container storage interfaces
  • the inclusion of add-ons and other services

End users are also responsible for:

  • The hardware and software which make up the infrastructure layer (such as vSphere, ESXi, physical servers, and physical network infrastructure).

  • The ongoing maintenance of the cluster nodes, including the underlying guest operating systems. Additionally, while EKS Anywhere provides a streamlined process for upgrading a cluster to a new Kubernetes version, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the upgrade as necessary.

  • Any applications which run “on” the cluster, including their secure operation, least privilege, and use of well-known and vetted container images.

EKS Anywhere Security Best Practices

This section captures EKS Anywhere specific security best practices. Please read this section carefully and follow any guidance to ensure the ongoing security and reliability of your EKS Anywhere cluster.

Critical Namespaces

EKS Anywhere creates and uses resources in several critical namespaces. All of the EKS Anywhere managed namespaces should be treated as sensitive and access should be limited to only the most trusted users and processes. Allowing additional access or modifying the existing RBAC resources could potentially allow a subject to access the namespace and the resources that it contains. This could lead to the exposure of secrets or the failure of your cluster due to modification of critical resources. Here are rules you should follow when dealing with critical namespaces:

  • Avoid creating Roles in these namespaces or providing users access to them with ClusterRoles . For more information about creating limited roles for day-to-day administration and development, please see the official introduction to Role Based Access Control (RBAC) .

  • Do not modify existing Roles in these namespaces, bind existing roles to additional subjects , or create new Roles in the namespace.

  • Do not modify existing ClusterRoles or bind them to additional subjects.

  • Avoid using the cluster-admin role, as it grants permissions over all namespaces.

  • No subjects except for the most trusted administrators should be permitted to perform ANY action in the critical namespaces.

The critical namespaces include:

  • eksa-system
  • capv-system
  • flux-system
  • capi-system
  • capi-webhook-system
  • capi-kubeadm-control-plane-system
  • capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-system
  • cert-manager
  • kube-system (as with any Kubernetes cluster, this namespace is critical to the functioning of your cluster and should be treated with the highest level of sensitivity.)

Secrets

EKS Anywhere stores sensitive information, like the vSphere credentials and GitHub Personal Access Token, in the cluster as native Kubernetes secrets . These secret objects are namespaced, for example in the eksa-system and flux-system namespace, and limiting access to the sensitive namespaces will ensure that these secrets will not be exposed. Additionally, limit access to the underlying node. Access to the node could allow access to the secret content.

EKS Anywhere does not currently support encryption-at-rest for Kubernetes secrets. EKS Anywhere support for Key Management Services (KMS) is planned.

The EKS Anywhere kubeconfig file

eksctl anywhere create cluster creates an EKS Anywhere-based Kubernetes cluster and outputs a kubeconfig file with administrative privileges to the $PWD/$CLUSTER_NAME directory.

By default, this kubeconfig file uses certificate-based authentication and contains the user certificate data for the administrative user.

The kubeconfig file grants administrative privileges over your cluster to the bearer and the certificate key should be treated as you would any other private key or administrative password.

The EKS Anywhere-generated kubeconfig file should only be used for interacting with the cluster via eksctl anywhere commands, such as upgrade, and for the most privileged administrative tasks. For more information about creating limited roles for day-to-day administration and development, please see the official introduction to Role Based Access Control (RBAC) .

GitOps

GitOps enabled EKS Anywhere clusters maintain a copy of their cluster configuration in the user provided Git repository. This configuration acts as the source of truth for the cluster. Changes made to this configuration will be reflected in the cluster configuration.

AWS recommends that you gate any changes to this repository with mandatory pull request reviews. Carefully review pull requests for changes which could impact the availability of the cluster (such as scaling nodes to 0 and deleting the cluster object) or contain secrets.

GitHub Personal Access Token

Treat the GitHub PAT used with EKS Anywhere as you would any highly privileged secret, as it could potentially be used to make changes to your cluster by modifying the contents of the cluster configuration file through the GitHub.com API.

  • Never commit the PAT to a Git repository
  • Never share the PAT via untrusted channels
  • Never grant non-administrative subjects access to the flux-system namespace where the PAT is stored as a native Kubernetes secret.

Executing EKS Anywhere

Ensure that you execute eksctl anywhere create cluster on a trusted workstation in order to protect the values of sensitive environment variables and the EKS Anywhere generated kubeconfig file.

SSH Access to Cluster Nodes and ETCD Nodes

EKS Anywhere provides the option to configure an ssh authorized key for access to underlying nodes in a cluster, via vsphereMachineConfig.Users.sshAuthorizedKeys. This grants the associated private key the ability to connect to the cluster via ssh as the user capv with sudo permissions. The associated private key should be treated as extremely sensitive, as sudo access to the cluster and ETCD nodes can permit access to secret object data and potentially confer arbitrary control over the cluster.

VMWare OVAs

Only download OVAs for cluster nodes from official sources, and do not allow untrusted users or processes to modify the templates used by EKS Anywhere for provisioning nodes.

Keeping Bottlerocket up to date

EKS Anywhere provides the most updated patch of operating systems with every release. It is recommended that your clusters are kept up to date with the latest EKS Anywhere release to ensure you get the latest security updates. Bottlerocket is an EKS Anywhere supported operating system that can be kept up to date without requiring a cluster update. The Bottlerocket Update Operator is a Kubernetes update operator that coordinates Bottlerocket updates on hosts in the cluster. Please follow the instructions here to install Bottlerocket update operator.

Baremetal Clusters

EKS Anywhere Baremetal clusters run directly on physical servers in a datacenter. Make sure that the physical infrastructure, including the network, is secure before running EKS Anywhere clusters.

Please follow industry best practices for securing your network and datacenter, including but not limited to the following

  • Only allow trusted devices on the network
  • Secure the network using a firewall
  • Never source hardware from an untrusted vendor
  • Inspect and verify the metal servers you are using for the clusters are the ones you intended to use
  • If possible, use a separate L2 network for EKS Anywhere baremetal clusters
  • Conduct thorough audits of access, users, logs and other exploitable venues periodically

Benchmark tests for cluster hardening

EKS Anywhere creates clusters with server hardening configurations out of the box, via the use of security flags and opinionated default templates. You can verify the security posture of your EKS Anywhere cluster by using a tool called kube-bench , that checks whether Kubernetes is deployed securely.

kube-bench runs checks documented in the CIS Benchmark for Kubernetes , such as, pod specification file permissions, disabling insecure arguments, and so on.

Refer to the EKS Anywhere CIS Self-Assessment Guide for more information on how to evaluate the security configurations of your EKS Anywhere cluster.

6.2 - Authenticate cluster with AWS IAM Authenticator

Configure AWS IAM Authenticator to authenticate user access to the cluster

AWS IAM Authenticator Support (optional)

EKS Anywhere supports configuring AWS IAM Authenticator as an authentication provider for clusters.

When you create a cluster with IAM Authenticator enabled, EKS Anywhere

  • Installs aws-iam-authenticator server as a DaemonSet on the workload cluster.
  • Configures the Kubernetes API Server to communicate with iam authenticator using a token authentication webhook .
  • Creates the necessary ConfigMaps based on user options.

Create IAM Authenticator enabled cluster

Generate your cluster configuration and add the necessary IAM Authenticator configuration. For a full spec reference check AWSIamConfig .

Create an EKS Anywhere cluster as follows:

CLUSTER_NAME=my-cluster-name
eksctl anywhere create cluster -f ${CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml

Example AWSIamConfig configuration

This example uses a region in the default aws partition and EKSConfigMap as backendMode. Also, the IAM ARNs are mapped to the kubernetes system:masters group.

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
   name: my-cluster-name
spec:
   ...
   # IAM Authenticator
   identityProviderRefs:
      - kind: AWSIamConfig
        name: aws-iam-auth-config
---
apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: AWSIamConfig
metadata:
   name: aws-iam-auth-config
spec:
    awsRegion: us-west-1
    backendMode:
        - EKSConfigMap
    mapRoles:
        - roleARN: arn:aws:iam::XXXXXXXXXXXX:role/myRole
          username: myKubernetesUsername
          groups:
          - system:masters
    mapUsers:
        - userARN: arn:aws:iam::XXXXXXXXXXXX:user/myUser
          username: myKubernetesUsername
          groups:
          - system:masters
    partition: aws

Authenticating with IAM Authenticator

After your cluster is created you may now use the mapped IAM ARNs to authenticate to the cluster.

EKS Anywhere generates a KUBECONFIG file in your local directory that uses aws-iam-authenticator client to authenticate with the cluster. The file can be found at

${PWD}/${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-aws.kubeconfig

Steps

  1. Ensure the IAM role/user ARN mapped in the cluster is configured on the local machine from which you are trying to access the cluster.

  2. Install the aws-iam-authenticator client binary on the local machine.

    • We recommend installing the binary referenced in the latest release manifest of the kubernetes version used when creating the cluster.
    • The below commands can be used to fetch the installation uri for clusters created with 1.27 kubernetes version and OS linux.
    CLUSTER_NAME=my-cluster-name
    KUBERNETES_VERSION=1.27
    
    export KUBECONFIG=${PWD}/${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    EKS_D_MANIFEST_URL=$(kubectl get bundles $CLUSTER_NAME -o jsonpath="{.spec.versionsBundles[?(@.kubeVersion==\"$KUBERNETES_VERSION\")].eksD.manifestUrl}")
    
    OS=linux
    curl -fsSL $EKS_D_MANIFEST_URL | yq e '.status.components[] | select(.name=="aws-iam-authenticator") | .assets[] | select(.os == '"\"$OS\""' and .type == "Archive") | .archive.uri' -
    
  3. Export the generated IAM Authenticator based KUBECONFIG file.

    export KUBECONFIG=${PWD}/${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-aws.kubeconfig
    
  4. Run kubectl commands to check cluster access. Example,

    kubectl get pods -A
    

Modify IAM Authenticator mappings

EKS Anywhere supports modifying IAM ARNs that are mapped on the cluster. The mappings can be modified by either running the upgrade cluster command or using GitOps.

upgrade command

The mapRoles and mapUsers lists in AWSIamConfig can be modified when running the upgrade cluster command from EKS Anywhere.

As an example, let’s add another IAM user to the above example configuration.

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: AWSIamConfig
metadata:
   name: aws-iam-auth-config
spec:
    ...
    mapUsers:
        - userARN: arn:aws:iam::XXXXXXXXXXXX:user/myUser
          username: myKubernetesUsername
          groups:
          - system:masters
        - userARN: arn:aws:iam::XXXXXXXXXXXX:user/anotherUser
          username: anotherKubernetesUsername
    partition: aws

and then run the upgrade command

CLUSTER_NAME=my-cluster-name
eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster -f ${CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml

EKS Anywhere now updates the role mappings for IAM authenticator in the cluster and a new user gains access to the cluster.

GitOps

If the cluster created has GitOps configured, then the mapRoles and mapUsers list in AWSIamConfig can be modified by the GitOps controller. For GitOps configuration details refer to Manage Cluster with GitOps .

  1. Clone your git repo and modify the cluster specification. The default path for the cluster file is:
    clusters/$CLUSTER_NAME/eksa-system/eksa-cluster.yaml
    
  2. Modify the AWSIamConfig object and add to the mapRoles and mapUsers object lists.
  3. Commit the file to your git repository
    git add eksa-cluster.yaml
    git commit -m 'Adding IAM Authenticator access ARNs'
    git push origin main
    

EKS Anywhere GitOps Controller now updates the role mappings for IAM authenticator in the cluster and users gains access to the cluster.

6.3 - Certificate rotation

How to rotate certificates for etcd and control plane nodes

Certificates for external etcd and control plane nodes expire after 1 year in EKS Anywhere. EKS Anywhere automatically rotates these certificates when new machines are rolled out in the cluster. New machines are rolled out during cluster lifecycle operations such as upgrade. If you upgrade your cluster at least once a year, you do not have to manually rotate the cluster certificates.

This page shows the process for manually rotating certificates if you have not upgraded your cluster in 1 year.

The following table lists the cluster certificate files:

etcd node control plane node
apiserver-etcd-client apiserver-etcd-client
ca ca
etcdctl-etcd-client front-proxy-ca
peer sa
server etcd/ca.crt
apiserver-kubelet-client
apiserver
front-proxy-client

You can rotate certificates by following the steps given below. You cannot rotate the ca certificate because it is the root certificate. Note that the commands used for Bottlerocket nodes are different than those for Ubuntu and RHEL nodes.

External etcd nodes

If your cluster is using external etcd nodes, you need to renew the etcd node certificates first.

  1. SSH into each etcd node and run the following commands. Etcd automatically detects the new certificates and deprecates its old certificates.
# backup certs
cd /etc/etcd
sudo cp -r pki pki.bak
sudo rm pki/*
sudo cp pki.bak/ca.* pki

# run certificates join phase to regenerate the deleted certificates
sudo etcdadm join phase certificates http://eks-a-etcd-dumb-url
# you would be in the admin container when you ssh to the Bottlerocket machine
# open a root shell
sudo sheltie

# pull the image
IMAGE_ID=$(apiclient get | apiclient exec admin jq -r '.settings["host-containers"]["kubeadm-bootstrap"].source')
ctr image pull ${IMAGE_ID}

# backup certs
cd /var/lib/etcd
cp -r pki pki.bak
rm pki/*
cp pki.bak/ca.* pki

# recreate certificates
ctr run \
--mount type=bind,src=/var/lib/etcd/pki,dst=/etc/etcd/pki,options=rbind:rw \
--net-host \
--rm \
${IMAGE_ID} tmp-cert-renew \
/opt/bin/etcdadm join phase certificates http://eks-a-etcd-dumb-url --init-system kubelet
  1. Verify your etcd node is running correctly
sudo etcdctl --cacert=/etc/etcd/pki/ca.crt --cert=/etc/etcd/pki/etcdctl-etcd-client.crt --key=/etc/etcd/pki/etcdctl-etcd-client.key member list
ETCD_CONTAINER_ID=$(ctr -n k8s.io c ls | grep -w "etcd-io" | cut -d " " -f1)
ctr -n k8s.io t exec -t --exec-id etcd ${ETCD_CONTAINER_ID} etcdctl \
     --cacert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/ca.crt \
     --cert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.crt \
     --key=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.key \
     member list
  1. Repeat the above steps for all etcd nodes.

  2. Save the api-server-etcd-client crt and key file as a Secret from one of the etcd nodes, so the key can be picked up by new control plane nodes. You will also need them when renewing the certificates on control plane nodes. See the Kubernetes documentation for details on editing Secrets.

kubectl edit secret ${cluster-name}-api-server-etcd-client -n eksa-system

Control plane nodes

When there are no external etcd nodes, you only need to rotate the certificates for control plane nodes, as etcd certificates are managed by kubeadm when there are no external etcd nodes.

  1. SSH into each control plane node and run the following commands.
sudo kubeadm certs renew all
# you would be in the admin container when you ssh to the Bottlerocket machine
# open root shell
sudo sheltie

# pull the image
IMAGE_ID=$(apiclient get | apiclient exec admin jq -r '.settings["host-containers"]["kubeadm-bootstrap"].source')
ctr image pull ${IMAGE_ID}

# renew certs
# you may see missing etcd certs error, which is expected if you have external etcd nodes
ctr run \
--mount type=bind,src=/var/lib/kubeadm,dst=/var/lib/kubeadm,options=rbind:rw \
--mount type=bind,src=/var/lib/kubeadm,dst=/etc/kubernetes,options=rbind:rw \
--rm \
${IMAGE_ID} tmp-cert-renew \
/opt/bin/kubeadm certs renew all
  1. Verify the certificates have been rotated.
sudo kubeadm certs check-expiration
# you may see missing etcd certs error, which is expected if you have external etcd nodes
ctr run \
--mount type=bind,src=/var/lib/kubeadm,dst=/var/lib/kubeadm,options=rbind:rw \
--mount type=bind,src=/var/lib/kubeadm,dst=/etc/kubernetes,options=rbind:rw \
--rm \
${IMAGE_ID} tmp-cert-renew \
/opt/bin/kubeadm certs check-expiration
  1. If you have external etcd nodes, manually replace the api-server-etcd-client.crt and api-server-etcd-client.key file in /etc/kubernetes/pki (or /var/lib/kubeadm/pki in Bottlerocket) folder with the files you saved from any etcd node.

  2. Restart static control plane pods.

    • For Ubuntu and RHEL: temporarily move all manifest files from /etc/kubernetes/manifests/ and wait for 20 seconds, then move the manifests back to this file location.

    • For Bottlerocket: re-enable the static pods:

    apiclient get | jq -r '.settings.kubernetes["static-pods"] | keys[]' | xargs -n 1 -I {} apiclient set settings.kubernetes.static-pods.{}.enabled=false 
    apiclient get | jq -r '.settings.kubernetes["static-pods"] | keys[]' | xargs -n 1 -I {} apiclient set settings.kubernetes.static-pods.{}.enabled=true`
    

    You can verify Pods restarting by running kubectl from your Admin machine.

  3. Repeat the above steps for all control plane nodes.

You can similarly use the above steps to rotate a single certificate instead of all certificates.

6.4 - CIS Self-Assessment Guide

CIS Benchmark Self-Assessment Guide for EKS Anywhere clusters

The CIS Benchmark self-assessment guide serves to help EKS Anywhere users evaluate the level of security of the hardened cluster configuration against Kubernetes benchmark controls from the Center for Information Security (CIS). This guide will walk through the various controls and provide updated example commands to audit compliance in EKS Anywhere clusters.

You can verify the security posture of your EKS Anywhere cluster by using a tool called kube-bench . The ideal way to run the benchmark tests on your EKS Anywhere cluster is to apply the Kube-bench Job YAMLs to the cluster. This runs the kube-bench tests on a Pod on the cluster, and the logs of the Pod provide the test results.

Kube-bench currently does not support unstacked etcd topology (which is the default for EKS Anywhere), so the following checks are skipped in the default kube-bench Job YAML. If you created your EKS Anywhere cluster with stacked etcd configuration, you can apply the stacked etcd Job YAML instead.

Check number Check description
1.1.7 Ensure that the etcd pod specification file permissions are set to 644 or more restrictive
1.1.8 Ensure that the etcd pod specification file ownership is set to root:root
1.1.11 Ensure that the etcd data directory permissions are set to 700 or more restrictive
1.1.12 Ensure that the etcd data directory ownership is set to etcd:etcd

The following tests are also skipped, because they are not applicable or enforce settings that might make the cluster unstable.

Check number Check description Reason for skipping
Controlplane node configuration
1.2.6 Ensure that the –kubelet-certificate-authority argument is set as appropriate When generating serving certificates, functionality could break in conjunction with hostname overrides which are required for certain cloud providers
1.2.16 Ensure that the admission control plugin PodSecurityPolicy is set Enabling Pod Security Policy can cause applications to unexpectedly fail
1.2.32 Ensure that the –encryption-provider-config argument is set as appropriate Enabling encryption changes how data can be recovered as data is encrypted
1.2.33 Ensure that encryption providers are appropriately configured Enabling encryption changes how data can be recovered as data is encrypted
Worker node configuration
4.2.6 Ensure that the –protect-kernel-defaults argument is set to true System level configurations are required before provisioning the cluster in order for this argument to be set to true
4.2.10 Ensure that the –tls-cert-file and –tls-private-key-file arguments are set as appropriate When generating serving certificates, functionality could break in conjunction with hostname overrides which are required for certain cloud providers

7 - Observability in EKS Anywhere

Monitoring, Logging, and Tracing for EKS Anywhere Clusters.

7.1 - Overview

Overview of observability in EKS Anywhere

Most Kubernetes-conformant observability tools can be used with EKS Anywhere. You can optionally use the EKS Connector to view your EKS Anywhere cluster resources in the Amazon EKS console, reference the Connect to console page for details. EKS Anywhere includes the AWS Distro for Open Telemetry (ADOT) and Prometheus for metrics and tracing as EKS Anywhere Curated Packages. You can use popular tooling such as Fluent Bit for logging, and can track the progress of logging for ADOT on the AWS Observability roadmap . For more information on EKS Anywhere Curated Packages, reference the Package Management Overview .

AWS Integrations

AWS offers comprehensive monitoring, logging, alarming, and dashboard capabilities through services such as Amazon CloudWatch , Amazon Managed Prometheus (AMP) , and Amazon Managed Grafana (AMG) . With CloudWatch, you can take advantage of a highly scalable, AWS-native centralized logging and monitoring solution for EKS Anywhere clusters. With AMP and AMG, you can monitor your containerized applications EKS Anywhere clusters at scale with popular Prometheus and Grafana interfaces.

Resources

  1. Verify EKS Anywhere cluster status
  2. Use the EKS Connector to view EKS Anywhere clusters and resources in the EKS console
  3. Use Fluent Bit and Container Insights to send metrics and logs to CloudWatch
  4. Use ADOT to send metrics to AMP and AMG

7.2 - Verify EKS Anywhere cluster status

Verify the status of EKS Anywhere clusters

Check cluster nodes

To verify the expected number of cluster nodes are present and running, use the kubectl command to show that nodes are Ready.

Worker nodes are named using the cluster name followed by the worker node group name. In the example below, the cluster name is mgmt and the worker node group name is md-0. The other nodes shown in the response are control plane or etcd nodes.

kubectl get nodes
NAME                              STATUS   ROLES           AGE   VERSION
mgmt-clrt4                        Ready    control-plane   3d22h   v1.27.1-eks-61789d8
mgmt-md-0-5557f7c7bxsjkdg-l2kpt   Ready    <none>          3d22h   v1.27.1-eks-61789d8

Check cluster machines

To verify that the expected number of cluster machines are present and running, use the kubectl command to show that the machines are Running.

The machine objects are named using the cluster name as a prefix and there should be one created for each node in your cluster. In the example below, the command was run against a management cluster with a single attached workload cluster. When the command is run against a management cluster, all machines for the management cluster and attached workload clusters are shown.

kubectl get machines -A
NAMESPACE     NAME                              CLUSTER   NODENAME                          PROVIDERID                                       PHASE     AGE     VERSION
eksa-system   mgmt-clrt4                        mgmt      mgmt-clrt4                        vsphere://421a801c-ac46-f47e-de1f-f070ef990c4d   Running   3d22h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
eksa-system   mgmt-md-0-5557f7c7bxsjkdg-l2kpt   mgmt      mgmt-md-0-5557f7c7bxsjkdg-l2kpt   vsphere://421a4b9b-c457-fc4d-458a-d5092f981c5d   Running   3d22h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
eksa-system   w01-7hzfh                         w01       w01-7hzfh                         vsphere://421a642b-f4ef-5764-47f9-5b56efcf8a4b   Running   15h     v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
eksa-system   w01-etcd-z2ggk                    w01                                         vsphere://421ac003-3a1a-7dd9-ac83-bd0c75370cc4   Running   15h     
eksa-system   w01-md-0-799ffd7946x5gz8w-p94mt   w01       w01-md-0-799ffd7946x5gz8w-p94mt   vsphere://421a7b77-ca57-dc78-18bf-f361081a2c5e   Running   15h     v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4

Check cluster components

To verify cluster components are present and running, use the kubectl command to show that the system Pods are Running. The number of Pods may vary based on the infrastructure provider (vSphere, bare metal, Snow, Nutanix, CloudStack), and whether the cluster is a workload cluster or a management cluster.

kubectl get pods -A
NAMESPACE                           NAME                                                             READY   STATUS    RESTARTS      AGE
capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-system       capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-controller-manager-8665b88c65-v982t       1/1     Running   0             3d22h
capi-kubeadm-control-plane-system   capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager-67595c55d8-z7627   1/1     Running   0             3d22h
capi-system                         capi-controller-manager-88bdd56b4-wnk66                          1/1     Running   0             3d22h
capv-system                         capv-controller-manager-644d9864dc-hbrcz                         1/1     Running   1 (16h ago)   3d22h
cert-manager                        cert-manager-548579646f-4tgb2                                    1/1     Running   0             3d22h
cert-manager                        cert-manager-cainjector-cbb6df554-w5fjx                          1/1     Running   0             3d22h
cert-manager                        cert-manager-webhook-54f748c89b-qnfr2                            1/1     Running   0             3d22h
eksa-packages                       ecr-credential-provider-package-4c7mk                            1/1     Running   0             3d22h
eksa-packages                       ecr-credential-provider-package-nvlkb                            1/1     Running   0             3d22h
eksa-packages                       eks-anywhere-packages-784c6fc8b9-2t5nr                           1/1     Running   0             3d22h
eksa-system                         eksa-controller-manager-76f484bd5b-x6qld                         1/1     Running   0             3d22h
etcdadm-bootstrap-provider-system   etcdadm-bootstrap-provider-controller-manager-6bcdd4f5d7-wvqw8   1/1     Running   0             3d22h
etcdadm-controller-system           etcdadm-controller-controller-manager-6f96f5d594-kqnfw           1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         cilium-lbqdt                                                     1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         cilium-operator-55c4778776-jvrnh                                 1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         cilium-operator-55c4778776-wjjrk                                 1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         cilium-psqm2                                                     1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         coredns-69797695c4-kdtjc                                         1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         coredns-69797695c4-r25vv                                         1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         etcd-mgmt-clrt4                                                  1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         kube-apiserver-mgmt-clrt4                                        1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         kube-controller-manager-mgmt-clrt4                               1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         kube-proxy-588gj                                                 1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         kube-proxy-hrksw                                                 1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         kube-scheduler-mgmt-clrt4                                        1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         kube-vip-mgmt-clrt4                                              1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         vsphere-cloud-controller-manager-7vzjx                           1/1     Running   0             3d22h
kube-system                         vsphere-cloud-controller-manager-cqfs5                           1/1     Running   0             3d22h

Check control plane components

You can verify the control plane is present and running by filtering Pods by the control-plane=controller-manager label.

kubectl get pod -A -l control-plane=controller-manager
NAMESPACE                           NAME                                                             READY   STATUS    RESTARTS      AGE
capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-system       capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-controller-manager-8665b88c65-v982t       1/1     Running   0             3d21h
capi-kubeadm-control-plane-system   capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager-67595c55d8-z7627   1/1     Running   0             3d21h
capi-system                         capi-controller-manager-88bdd56b4-wnk66                          1/1     Running   0             3d21h
capv-system                         capv-controller-manager-644d9864dc-hbrcz                         1/1     Running   1 (15h ago)   3d21h
eksa-packages                       eks-anywhere-packages-784c6fc8b9-2t5nr                           1/1     Running   0             3d21h
etcdadm-bootstrap-provider-system   etcdadm-bootstrap-provider-controller-manager-6bcdd4f5d7-wvqw8   1/1     Running   0             3d21h
etcdadm-controller-system           etcdadm-controller-controller-manager-6f96f5d594-kqnfw           1/1     Running   0             3d21h

Check workload clusters from management clusters

Set up CLUSTER_NAME and KUBECONFIG environment variable for the management cluster:

export CLUSTER_NAME=mgmt
export KUBECONFIG=${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
Check control plane resources for all clusters

Use the command below to check the status of cluster control plane resources. This is useful to verify clusters with multiple control plane nodes after an upgrade. The status for the management cluster and all attached workload clusters is shown.

kubectl get kubeadmcontrolplanes.controlplane.cluster.x-k8s.io -n eksa-system
NAME   CLUSTER   INITIALIZED   API SERVER AVAILABLE   REPLICAS   READY   UPDATED   UNAVAILABLE   AGE     VERSION
mgmt   mgmt      true          true                   1          1       1                       3d22h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
w01    w01       true          true                   1          1       1         0             16h     v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4

Use the command below to check the status of a cluster resource. This is useful to verify cluster health after any mutating cluster lifecycle operation. The status for the management cluster and all attached workload clusters is shown.

kubectl get clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io -A -o=custom-columns=NAME:.metadata.name,CONTROLPLANE-READY:.status.controlPlaneReady,INFRASTRUCTURE-READY:.status.infrastructureReady,MANAGED-EXTERNAL-ETCD-INITIALIZED:.status.managedExternalEtcdInitialized,MANAGED-EXTERNAL-ETCD-READY:.status.managedExternalEtcdReady
NAME   CONTROLPLANE-READY   INFRASTRUCTURE-READY   MANAGED-EXTERNAL-ETCD-INITIALIZED   MANAGED-EXTERNAL-ETCD-READY
mgmt   true                 true                   <none>                              <none>
w01    true                 true                   true                                true

7.3 - Connect EKS Anywhere clusters to the EKS console

Connect an EKS Anywhere cluster to the EKS console

The EKS Connector lets you connect your EKS Anywhere cluster to the EKS console. The connected console displays the EKS Anywhere cluster, its configuration, workloads, and their status. EKS Connector is a software agent that runs on your EKS Anywhere cluster and registers the cluster with the EKS console

Visit the EKS Connector documentation for details on how to configure and run the EKS Connector.

7.4 - Configure Fluent Bit for CloudWatch

Using Fluent Bit for logging with EKS Anywhere clusters and CloudWatch

Fluent Bit is an open source, multi-platform log processor and forwarder which allows you to collect data/logs from different sources, then unify and send them to multiple destinations. It’s fully compatible with Docker and Kubernetes environments. Due to its lightweight nature, using Fluent Bit as the log forwarder for EKS Anywhere clusters enables you to stream application logs into Amazon CloudWatch Logs efficiently and reliably.

You can additionally use CloudWatch Container Insights to collect, aggregate, and summarize metrics and logs from your containerized applications and microservices running on EKS Anywhere clusters. CloudWatch automatically collects metrics for many resources, such as CPU, memory, disk, and network. Container Insights also provides diagnostic information, such as container restart failures, to help you isolate issues and resolve them quickly. You can also set CloudWatch alarms on metrics that Container Insights collects.

On this page, we show how to set up Fluent Bit and Container Insights to send logs and metrics from your EKS Anywhere clusters to CloudWatch.

Prerequisites

  • An AWS Account (see AWS documentation to get started)
  • An EKS Anywhere cluster with IAM Roles for Service Account (IRSA) enabled: With IRSA, an IAM role can be associated with a Kubernetes service account. This service account can provide AWS permissions to the containers in any Pod that use the service account, which enables the containers to securely communicate with AWS services. This removes the need to hardcode AWS security credentials as environment variables on your nodes. See the IRSA configuration page for details.

Before setting up Fluent Bit, first create an IAM Policy and Role to send logs to CloudWatch.

Step 1: Create IAM Policy

  1. Go to IAM Policy in the AWS console.

  2. Click on JSON as shown below:

    Observability Create Policy

  3. Create below policy on the IAM Console. Click on Create Policy as shown:

        {
            "Version": "2012-10-17",
            "Statement": [
                {
                    "Sid": "EKSAnywhereLogging",
                    "Effect": "Allow",
                    "Action": "cloudwatch:*",
                    "Resource": "*"
                }
            ]
        }

Step 2: Create IAM Role

  1. Go to IAM Role in the AWS console.

  2. Follow the steps as shown below:

    Observability Role Creation

    In Identity Provider, enter the OIDC provider you created as a part of IRSA configuration.

    In Audience, select sts.amazonaws.com. Click on Next.

  3. Select permission name which we have created in Create IAM Policy

    Observability Select Permission

  4. Provide a Role name EKSAnywhereLogging and click Next.

  5. Copy the ARN as shown below and save it locally for the next step.

    Observability Copy ARN

Step 3: Install Fluent Bit

  1. Create the amazon-cloudwatch namespace using this command:

    kubectl create namespace amazon-cloudwatch
    
  2. Create the Service Account for cloudwatch-agent and fluent-bit under the amazon-cloudwatch namespace. In this section, we will use Role ARN which we saved earlier . Replace $RoleARN with your actual value.

    cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
    # create cwagent service account and role binding
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
    name: cloudwatch-agent
    namespace: amazon-cloudwatch
    annotations:
    # set this with value of OIDC_IAM_ROLE
    eks.amazonaws.com/role-arn: "$RoleARN"
    # optional: Defaults to "sts.amazonaws.com" if not set
    eks.amazonaws.com/audience: "sts.amazonaws.com"
    # optional: When set to "true", adds AWS_STS_REGIONAL_ENDPOINTS env var
    #   to containers
    eks.amazonaws.com/sts-regional-endpoints: "true"
    # optional: Defaults to 86400 for expirationSeconds if not set
    #   Note: This value can be overwritten if specified in the pod
    #         annotation as shown in the next step.
    eks.amazonaws.com/token-expiration: "86400"
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
    name: fluent-bit
    namespace: amazon-cloudwatch
    annotations:
    # set this with value of OIDC_IAM_ROLE
    eks.amazonaws.com/role-arn: "$RoleARN"
    # optional: Defaults to "sts.amazonaws.com" if not set
    eks.amazonaws.com/audience: "sts.amazonaws.com"
    # optional: When set to "true", adds AWS_STS_REGIONAL_ENDPOINTS env var
    #   to containers
    eks.amazonaws.com/sts-regional-endpoints: "true"
    # optional: Defaults to 86400 for expirationSeconds if not set
    #   Note: This value can be overwritten if specified in the pod
    #         annotation as shown in the next step.
    eks.amazonaws.com/token-expiration: "86400"
    EOF
    

    The above command creates two Service Accounts:

    serviceaccount/cloudwatch-agent created
    serviceaccount/fluent-bit created
    
  3. Now deploy Fluent Bit in your EKS Anywhere cluster to scrape and send logs to CloudWatch:

    kubectl apply -f "https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/manifests/fluentbit.yaml"
    

    You should see the following output:

    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cloudwatch-agent-role changed
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cloudwatch-agent-role-binding changed
    configmap/cwagentconfig changed
    daemonset.apps/cloudwatch-agent changed
    configmap/fluent-bit-cluster-info changed
    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/fluent-bit-role changed
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/fluent-bit-role-binding changed
    configmap/fluent-bit-config changed
    daemonset.apps/fluent-bit changed
    
  4. You can verify the DaemonSets have been deployed with the following command:

    kubectl -n amazon-cloudwatch get daemonsets
    
  • If you are running the EKS connector , you can verify the status of DaemonSets by logging into AWS console and navigate to Amazon EKS -> Cluster -> Resources -> DaemonSets

    Observability Verify DaemonSet

Step 4: Deploy a test application

Deploy a simple test application to verify your setup is working properly.

Step 5: View cluster logs and metrics

Cloudwatch Logs

  1. Open the CloudWatch console . The link opens the console and displays your current available log groups.

  2. Choose the EKS Anywhere clustername that you want to view logs for. The log group name format is /aws/containerinsights/my-EKS-Anywhere-cluster/cluster.

    Observability Container Insights

    Log group name /aws/containerinsights/my-EKS-Anywhere-cluster/application has log source from /var/log/containers.

    Log group name /aws/containerinsights/my-EKS-Anywhere-cluster/dataplane has log source for kubelet.service, kubeproxy.service, and docker.service

  3. To view the deployed test application logs, click on the application LogGroup, and click on Search All

    Observability Container Insights

  4. Type HTTP 1.1 200 in the search box and press enter. You should see logs as shown below:

    Observability Container Insights

Cloudwatch Container Insights

  1. Open the CloudWatch console . The link opens the Container Insights performance Monitoring console and displays a dropdown to select your EKS Clusters.

    Observability Container Insights

For more details on CloudWatch logs, please refer What is Amazon CloudWatch Logs?

8 - Backup and restore cluster

How to backup and restore your cluster

8.1 - Backup cluster

How to backup your EKS Anywhere cluster

We strongly advise performing regular cluster backups of all the EKS Anywhere clusters. This ensures that you always have an up-to-date cluster state available for restoration in case the cluster experiences issues or becomes unrecoverable. This document outlines the steps for creating the two essential types of backups required for the EKS Anywhere cluster restore process .

Etcd backup

For optimal cluster maintenance, it is crucial to perform regular etcd backups on all your EKS Anywhere management and workload clusters. Always take an etcd backup before performing an upgrade so it can be used to restore the cluster to a previous state in the event of a cluster upgrade failure. To create an etcd backup for your cluster, follow the guidelines provided in the External etcd backup and restore section.

Cluster API backup

Since cluster failures primarily occur following unsuccessful cluster upgrades, EKS Anywhere takes the proactive step of automatically creating backups for the Cluster API objects. For the management cluster, it captures the states of both the management cluster and its workload clusters if all the clusters are in ready state. If one of the workload clusters is not ready, EKS Anywhere takes the best effort to backup the management cluster itself. For the workload cluster, it captures the state workload cluster’s Cluster API objects. These backups are stored within the management cluster folder, where the upgrade command is initiated from the Admin machine, and are generated before each management and/or workload cluster upgrade process. For example, after executing a cluster upgrade command on mgmt-cluster, a backup folder is generated with the naming convention of mgmt-cluster-backup-${timestamp}:

mgmt-cluster/ 
├── mgmt-cluster-backup-2023-10-11T02_55_56 <------ Folder with a backup of the CAPI objects 
├── mgmt-cluster-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
├── mgmt-cluster-eks-a-cluster.yaml
└── generated

For workload cluster, a backup folder is generated with the naming convention of wkld-cluster-backup-${timestamp} under mgmt-cluster directory

mgmt-cluster/ 
├── wkld-cluster-backup-2023-10-11T02_55_56 <------ Folder with a backup of the CAPI objects 
├── mgmt-cluster-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
├── mgmt-cluster-eks-a-cluster.yaml
└── generated

Although the likelihood of a cluster failure occurring without any associated cluster upgrade operation is relatively low, it is still recommended to manually back up these Cluster API objects on a routine basis. For example, to create a Cluster API backup of a cluster:

MGMT_CLUSTER="mgmt"
MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG=${MGMT_CLUSTER}/${MGMT_CLUSTER}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
BACKUP_DIRECTORY=backup-mgmt

# Substitute the EKS Anywhere release version with whatever CLI version you are using
EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION=v0.17.3
BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL=$(curl -s https://anywhere-assets.eks.amazonaws.com/releases/eks-a/manifest.yaml | yq ".spec.releases[] | select(.version==\"$EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION\").bundleManifestUrl")
CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE=$(curl -s $BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL | yq ".spec.versionsBundles[0].eksa.cliTools.uri")


docker run -i --network host -w $(pwd) -v $(pwd):/$(pwd) --entrypoint clusterctl ${CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE} move \
        --namespace eksa-system \
        --kubeconfig $MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG \
        --to-directory ${BACKUP_DIRECTORY}

This saves the Cluster API objects of the management cluster mgmt with all its workload clusters, to a local directory under the backup-mgmt folder.

8.2 - Restore cluster

How to restore your EKS Anywhere cluster from backup

In certain unfortunate circumstances, an EKS Anywhere cluster may find itself in an unrecoverable state due to various factors such as a failed cluster upgrade, underlying infrastructure problems, or network issues, rendering the cluster inaccessible through conventional means. This document outlines detailed steps to guide you through the process of restoring a failed cluster from backups in these critical situations.

Prerequisite

Always backup your EKS Anywhere cluster. Refer to the Backup cluster and make sure you have the updated etcd and Cluster API backup at hand.

Restore a management cluster

As an EKS Anywhere management cluster contains the management components of itself, plus all the workload clusters it manages, the restoration process can be more complicated than just restoring all the objects from the etcd backup. To be more specific, all the core EKS Anywhere and Cluster API custom resources, that manage the lifecycle (provisioning, upgrading, operating, etc.) of the management and its workload clusters, are stored in the management cluster. This includes all the supporting infrastructure, like virtual machines, networks and load balancers. For example, after a failed cluster upgrade, the infrastructure components can change after the etcd backup was taken. Since the backup does not contain the new state of the half upgraded cluster, simply restoring it can create virtual machines UUID and IP mismatches, rendering EKS Anywhere incapable of healing the cluster.

Depending on whether the infrastructure components are changed or not after the etcd backup was taken (for example, if machines are rolled out and recreated and new IP addresses assigned to the machines), different strategy needs to be applied in order to restore the management cluster.

Cluster accessible and the infrastructure components not changed after etcd backup was taken

If the management cluster is still accessible through the API server, and the underlying infrastructure layer (nodes, machines, VMs, etc.) are not changed after the etcd backup was taken, simply follow the External etcd backup and restore to restore the management cluster itself from the backup.

Cluster not accessible or infrastructure components changed after etcd backup was taken

If the cluster is no longer accessible in any means, or the infrastructure machines are changed after the etcd backup was taken, restoring this management cluster itself from the outdated etcd backup will not work. Instead, you need to create a new management cluster, and migrate all the EKS Anywhere resources of the old workload clusters to the new one, so that the new management cluster can maintain the new ownership of managing the existing workload clusters. Below is an example of migrating a failed management cluster mgmt-old with its workload clusters w01 and w02 to a new management cluster mgmt-new:

  1. Create a new management cluster to which you will be migrating your workload clusters later.

    You can define a cluster config similar to your old management cluster, and run cluster creation of the new management cluster with the exact same EKS Anywhere version used to create the old management cluster.

    If the original management cluster still exists with old infrastructure running, you need to create a new management cluster with a different cluster name to avoid conflict.

    eksctl anywhere create cluster -f mgmt-new.yaml
    
  2. Move the custom resources of all the workload clusters to the new management cluster created above.

    Using the vSphere provider as an example, we are moving the Cluster API custom resources, such as vpsherevms, vspheremachines and machines of the workload clusters, from the old management cluster to the new management cluster created in above step. By using the --filter-cluster flag with the clusterctl move command, we are only targeting the custom resources from the workload clusters.

    # Use the same cluster name if the newly created management cluster has the same cluster name as the old one
    MGMT_CLUSTER_OLD="mgmt-old"
    MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW="mgmt-new"
    MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW_KUBECONFIG=${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_1="w01"
    WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_2="w02"
    
    # Substitute the workspace path with the workspace you are using
    WORKSPACE_PATH="/home/ec2-user/eks-a"
    
    # Retrieve the Cluster API backup folder path that are automatically generated during the cluster upgrade
    # This folder contains all the resources that represent the cluster state of the old management cluster along with its workload clusters
    CLUSTER_STATE_BACKUP_LATEST=$(ls -Art ${WORKSPACE_PATH}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_OLD} | grep ${MGMT_CLUSTER_OLD}-backup | tail -1)
    CLUSTER_STATE_BACKUP_LATEST_PATH=${WORKSPACE_PATH}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_OLD}/${CLUSTER_STATE_BACKUP_LATEST}/
    
    # Substitute the EKS Anywhere release version with the EKS Anywhere version of the original management cluster
    EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION=v0.17.3
    BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL=$(curl -s https://anywhere-assets.eks.amazonaws.com/releases/eks-a/manifest.yaml | yq ".spec.releases[] | select(.version==\"$EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION\").bundleManifestUrl")
    CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE=$(curl -s $BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL | yq ".spec.versionsBundles[0].eksa.cliTools.uri")
    
    # The clusterctl move command needs to be executed for each workload cluster.
    # It will only move the workload cluster resources from the EKS Anywhere backup to the new management cluster.
    # If you have multiple workload clusters, you have to run the command for each cluster as shown below.
    
    # Move workload cluster w01 resources to the new management cluster mgmt-new
    docker run -i --network host -w $(pwd) -v $(pwd):/$(pwd) --entrypoint clusterctl ${CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE} move \
        --namespace eksa-system \
        --filter-cluster ${WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_1} \
        --from-directory ${CLUSTER_STATE_BACKUP_LATEST_PATH} \
        --to-kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW_KUBECONFIG}
    
    # Move workload cluster w02 resources to the new management cluster mgmt-new
    docker run -i --network host -w $(pwd) -v $(pwd):/$(pwd) --entrypoint clusterctl ${CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE} move \
        --namespace eksa-system \
        --filter-cluster ${WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_2} \
        --from-directory ${CLUSTER_STATE_BACKUP_LATEST_PATH} \
        --to-kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW_KUBECONFIG}
    
  3. (Optional) Update the cluster config file of the workload clusters if the new management cluster has a different cluster name than the original management cluster.

    You can skip this step if the new management cluster has the same cluster name as the old management cluster.

    # workload cluster w01
    ---
    apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Cluster
    metadata:
      name: w01
      namespace: default
    spec:
      managementCluster:
        name: mgmt-new # This needs to be updated with the new management cluster name.
      ...
    
    # workload cluster w02
    ---
    apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Cluster
    metadata:
      name: w02
      namespace: default
    spec:
      managementCluster:
        name: mgmt-new # This needs to be updated with the new management cluster name.
      ...
    

    Make sure that apart from the managementCluster field you updated above, all the other cluster configs of the workload clusters need to stay the same as the old workload clusters resources after the old management cluster fails.

  4. Apply the updated cluster config of each workload cluster in the new management cluster.

    MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW="mgmt-new"
    MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW_KUBECONFIG=${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    kubectl apply -f w01/w01-eks-a-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW_KUBECONFIG}
    kubectl apply -f w02/w02-eks-a-cluster.yaml --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW_KUBECONFIG}
    
  5. Validate all clusters are in the desired state.

    kubectl get clusters -n default -o custom-columns="NAME:.metadata.name,READY:.status.conditions[?(@.type=='Ready')].status" --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    NAME       READY
    mgmt-new   True
    w01        True
    w02        True
    
    kubectl get clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io -n eksa-system --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    NAME       PHASE         AGE
    mgmt-new   Provisioned   11h   
    w01        Provisioned   11h   
    w02        Provisioned   11h 
    
    kubectl get kcp -n eksa-system  --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NEW}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    NAME       CLUSTER    INITIALIZED   API SERVER AVAILABLE   REPLICAS   READY   UPDATED   UNAVAILABLE   AGE   VERSION
    mgmt-new   mgmt-new   true          true                   2          2       2                       11h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
    w01        w01        true          true                   2          2       2                       11h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
    w02        w02        true          true                   2          2       2                       11h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
    

Restore a workload cluster

Cluster accessible and the infrastructure components not changed after etcd backup was taken

Similar to the failed management cluster without infrastructure components change situation, follow the External etcd backup and restore to restore the workload cluster itself from the backup.

Cluster not accessible or infrastructure components changed after etcd backup was taken

If the workload cluster is still accessible, but the infrastructure machines are changed after the etcd backup was taken, you can still try restoring the cluster itself from the etcd backup. Although doing so is risky: it can potentially cause the node names, IPs and other infrastructure configurations to revert to a state that is no longer valid. Restoring etcd effectively takes a cluster back in time and all clients will experience a conflicting, parallel history. This can impact the behavior of watching components like Kubernetes controller managers, EKS Anywhere cluster controller manager, and Cluster API controller managers.

If the original workload cluster becomes inaccessible or cannot be restored to a healthy state from an outdated etcd, a new workload cluster needs to be created. This new cluster should be managed by the same management cluster that oversaw the original. You must then restore your workload applications to this new cluster from the etcd backup of the original. This ensures the management cluster retains control, with all data from the old cluster intact. Below is an example of applying the etcd backup etcd-snapshot-w01.db from a failed workload cluster w01 to a new cluster w02:

  1. Create a new workload cluster to which you will be migrating your workloads and applications from the original failed workload cluster.

    You can define a cluster config similar to your old workload cluster, with a different cluster name (if the old workload cluster still exists), and run cluster creation of the new workload cluster with the exact same EKS Anywhere version used to create the old workload cluster.

    export MGMT_CLUSTER="mgmt"
    export MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG=${MGMT_CLUSTER}/${MGMT_CLUSTER}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    eksctl anywhere create cluster -f w02.yaml --kubeconfig $MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
  2. Save the config map objects of the new workload cluster to a file.

    Save a copy of the new workload cluster’s cluster-info, kube-proxy and kubeadm-config config map objects before the restore. This is necessary as the etcd restore will override the config maps above with the metadata information (certificates, endpoint, etc.) from the old cluster.

    export WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME="w02"
    export WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG=${WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME}/${WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
    cat <<EOF >> w02-cm.yaml
    $(kubectl get -n kube-public cm cluster-info -oyaml --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG)
    ---
    $(kubectl get -n kube-system cm kube-proxy -oyaml --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG)
    ---
    $(kubectl get -n kube-system cm kubeadm-config -oyaml --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG)
    EOF
    

    Manually remove the creationTimestamp, resourceVersion, uid from the config map objects, so that later you can run kubectl apply against this file without errors.

  3. Follow the External etcd backup and restore to restore the old workload cluster’s etcd backup etcd-snapshot-w01.db onto the new workload cluster w02. Use different restore process based on OS family:

    You might notice that after restoring the original etcd backup to the new workload cluster w02, all the nodes go to NotReady state with node names changed to have prefix w01-*. This is because restoring etcd effectively applies the node data from the original cluster which causes a conflicting history and can impact the behavior of watching components like Kubelets, Kubernetes controller managers.

    kubectl get nodes --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    NAME                              STATUS     ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    w01-bbtdd                         NotReady   control-plane   3d23h   v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    w01-md-0-66dbcfb56cxng8lc-8ppv5   NotReady   <none>          3d23h   v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    
  4. Restart Kubelet of the control plane and worker nodes of the new workload cluster after the restore.

    For some cases, Kubelet on the node will automatically restart and nodes becomes ready. For other cases, you need to manually restart the Kubelet on all the control plane and worker nodes in order to bring back the nodes to ready state. Kubelet registers the node itself with the apisever which then updates etcd with the correct node data of the new workload cluster w02.

    # SSH into the control plane and worker nodes. You must do this for each node.
    ssh -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@<node IP>
    sudo su
    systemctl restart kubelet
        
    # SSH into the control plane and worker nodes. You must do this for each node.
    ssh -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@<node IP>
    apiclient exec admin bash
    sheltie
    systemctl restart kubelet
        
  5. Add back node-role.kubernetes.io/control-plane label to all the control plane nodes.

    kubectl label nodes <control-plane-node-name> node-role.kubernetes.io/control-plane= --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
  6. Remove the lagacy nodes (if any).

    kubectl get nodes --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    NAME                              STATUS     ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    w01-bbtdd                         NotReady   control-plane   3d23h   v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    w01-md-0-66dbcfb56cxng8lc-8ppv5   NotReady   <none>          3d23h   v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    w02-fcbm2j                        Ready      control-plane   91m     v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    w02-md-0-b7cc67cd4xd86jf-4c9ktp   Ready      <none>          73m     v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    
    kubectl delete node w01-bbtdd --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    kubectl delete node w01-md-0-66dbcfb56cxng8lc-8ppv5 --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
  7. Re-apply the original config map objects of the workload cluster.

    Re-apply the cluster-info, kube-proxy and kubeadm-config config map objects we saved in previous step to the workload cluster w02.

    kubectl apply -f w02-cm.yaml --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
  8. Validate the nodes are in ready state.

    kubectl get nodes --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    NAME                              STATUS   ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    w02-djshz                         Ready    control-plane   9m7s    v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    w02-md-0-6bbc8dd6d4xbgcjh-wfmb6   Ready    <none>          3m55s   v1.27.3-eks-6f07bbc
    
  9. Restart the system pods to ensure that they use the config maps you re-applied in previous step.

    kubectl rollout restart ds kube-proxy -n kube-system --kubeconfig $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
  10. Unpause the cluster reconcilers

    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused- --kubeconfig=$MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": false}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig=$MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
  11. Rollout and restart all the machine objects so that the workload cluster has a clean state.

    # Substitute the EKS Anywhere release version with whatever CLI version you are using
    EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION=v0.18.3
    BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL=$(curl -s https://anywhere-assets.eks.amazonaws.com/releases/eks-a/manifest.yaml | yq ".spec.releases[] | select(.version==\"$EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION\").bundleManifestUrl")
    CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE=$(curl -s $BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL | yq ".spec.versionsBundles[0].eksa.cliTools.uri")
    
    
    # Rollout restart all the control plane machines
    docker run -i --network host -w $(pwd) -v $(pwd):/$(pwd) --entrypoint clusterctl ${CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE} alpha rollout restart kubeadmcontrolplane/${WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME} -n eksa-system --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG}
    
    # Rollout restart all the worker machines
    # You need to repeat below command for each worker node group
    docker run -i --network host -w $(pwd) -v $(pwd):/$(pwd) --entrypoint clusterctl ${CLI_TOOLS_IMAGE} alpha rollout restart machinedeployment/${WORKLOAD_CLUSTER_NAME}-md-0 -n eksa-system --kubeconfig ${MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG}
    
  12. Validate the new workload cluster is in the desired state.

    kubectl get clusters -n default -o custom-columns="NAME:.metadata.name,READY:.status.conditions[?(@.type=='Ready')].status" --kubeconfig $MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    NAME   READY
    mgmt   True
    w02    True
    
    kubectl get clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io -n eksa-system --kubeconfig $MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    NAME   PHASE         AGE
    mgmt   Provisioned   11h   
    w02    Provisioned   11h 
    
    kubectl get kcp -n eksa-system  --kubeconfig $MGMT_CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG
    
    NAME   CLUSTER    INITIALIZED   API SERVER AVAILABLE   REPLICAS   READY   UPDATED   UNAVAILABLE   AGE   VERSION
    mgmt   mgmt       true          true                   2          2       2                       11h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
    w02    w02        true          true                   2          2       2                       11h   v1.27.1-eks-1-27-4
    

9 - etcd backup and restore

How to Backup and Restore etcd

9.1 - External etcd backup and restore

How to Backup and Restore External ETCD

This page contains steps for backing up a cluster by taking an ETCD snapshot, and restoring the cluster from a snapshot.

Use case

EKS-Anywhere clusters use ETCD as the backing store. Taking a snapshot of ETCD backs up the entire cluster data. This can later be used to restore a cluster back to an earlier state if required.

ETCD backups can be taken prior to cluster upgrade, so if the upgrade doesn’t go as planned, you can restore from the backup.

9.2 - Bottlerocket

How to backup and restore External etcd on Bottlerocket OS

This guide requires some common shell tools such as:

  • grep
  • xargs
  • ssh
  • scp
  • cut

Make sure you have these installed on your admin machine before continuing.

Admin machine environment variables setup

On your admin machine, set the following environment variables that will later come in handy

export MANAGEMENT_CLUSTER_NAME="eksa-management"     # Set this to the management cluster name
export CLUSTER_NAME="eksa-workload"                  # Set this to name of the cluster you want to backup (management or workload)
export SSH_KEY="path-to-private-ssh-key"             # Set this to the cluster's private SSH key path
export SSH_USERNAME="ec2-user"                       # Set this to the SSH username
export SNAPSHOT_PATH="/tmp/snapshot.db"              # Set this to the path where you want the etcd snapshot to be saved

export MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG=${MANAGEMENT_CLUSTER_NAME}/${MANAGEMENT_CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
export CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG=${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
export ETCD_ENDPOINTS=$(kubectl --kubeconfig=${MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG} -n eksa-system get machines --selector cluster.x-k8s.io/cluster-name=${CLUSTER_NAME},cluster.x-k8s.io/etcd-cluster=${CLUSTER_NAME}-etcd -ojsonpath='{.items[*].status.addresses[0].address}')
export CONTROL_PLANE_ENDPOINTS=($(kubectl --kubeconfig=${MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG} -n eksa-system get machines --selector cluster.x-k8s.io/control-plane-name=${CLUSTER_NAME} -ojsonpath='{.items[*].status.addresses[0].address}'))

Prepare etcd nodes for backup and restore

Install SCP on the etcd nodes:

echo -n ${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} | xargs -I {} -d" " ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@{} sudo yum -y install openssh-clients

Create etcd Backup

Make sure to setup the admin environment variables and prepare your ETCD nodes for backup before moving forward.

  1. SSH into one of the etcd nodes

    export ETCD_NODE=$(echo -n ${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} | cut -d " " -f1)
    ssh -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@${ETCD_NODE}
    
  2. Drop into Bottlerocket’s root shell

    sudo sheltie
    
  3. Set these environment variables

    # get the container ID corresponding to etcd pod
    export ETCD_CONTAINER_ID=$(ctr -n k8s.io c ls | grep -w "etcd-io" | head -1 | cut -d " " -f1)
    
    # get the etcd endpoint
    export ETCD_ENDPOINT=$(cat /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd | grep -wA1 ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS | tail -1 | grep -oE '[^ ]+$')
    
  4. Create the etcd snapshot

        ctr -n k8s.io t exec -t --exec-id etcd ${ETCD_CONTAINER_ID} etcdctl \
            --endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINT} \
            --cacert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/ca.crt \
            --cert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.crt \
            --key=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.key \
            snapshot save /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-backup.db
        
        ctr -n k8s.io t exec -t --exec-id etcd ${ETCD_CONTAINER_ID} etcdutl \
            --endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINT} \
            --cacert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/ca.crt \
            --cert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.crt \
            --key=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.key \
            snapshot save /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-backup.db
        
  5. Move the snapshot to another directory and set proper permissions

    mv /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-backup.db /run/host-containerd/io.containerd.runtime.v2.task/default/admin/rootfs/home/ec2-user/snapshot.db
    chown 1000 /run/host-containerd/io.containerd.runtime.v2.task/default/admin/rootfs/home/ec2-user/snapshot.db
    
  6. Exit out of etcd node. You will have to type exit twice to get back to the admin machine

    exit
    exit
    
  7. Copy over the snapshot from the etcd node

    scp -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@${ETCD_NODE}:/home/ec2-user/snapshot.db ${SNAPSHOT_PATH}
    

You should now have the etcd snapshot in your current working directory.

Restore etcd from Backup

Make sure to setup the admin environment variables and prepare your etcd nodes for restore before moving forward.

  1. Pause cluster reconciliation

    Before starting the process of restoring etcd, you have to pause some cluster reconciliation objects so EKS Anywhere doesn’t try to perform any operations on the cluster while you restore the etcd snapshot.

    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused=true --kubeconfig=$MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG
    
    kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": true}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig=$MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG
    
  2. Stop control plane core components

    You also need to stop the control plane core components so the Kubernetes API server doesn’t try to communicate with etcd while you perform etcd operations.

    • You can use this command to get the control plane node IPs which you can use to SSH
    echo -n ${CONTROL_PLANE_ENDPOINTS[@]} | xargs -I {} -d " " echo "{}"
    
    • SSH into the node and stop the core components. You must do this for each control plane node.
    # SSH into the control plane node using the IPs printed in previous command
    ssh -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@<Control Plane IP from previous command>
    
    # drop into bottlerocket root shell
    sudo sheltie
    
    # create a temporary directory and move the static manifests to it
    mkdir -p /tmp/temp-manifests
    mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/* /tmp/temp-manifests
    
    • Exit out of the Bottlerocket node
    # exit from bottlerocket's root shell
    exit
    
    # exit from bottlerocket node
    exit
    

    Repeat these steps for each control plane node.

  3. Copy the backed-up etcd snapshot to all the etcd nodes

    echo -n ${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} | xargs -I {} -d" " scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SNAPSHOT_PATH} ${SSH_USERNAME}@{}:/home/ec2-user
    
  4. Perform the etcd restore

    For this step, you have to SSH into each etcd node and run the restore command.

    • Get etcd nodes IPs for SSH’ing into the nodes
    # This should print out all the etcd IPs
    echo -n ${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} | xargs -I {} -d " " echo "{}"
    
    # SSH into the etcd node using the IPs printed in previous command
    ssh -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@<etcd IP from previous command>
    
    # drop into bottlerocket\'s root shell
    sudo sheltie
    
    # copy over the etcd snapshot to the appropriate location
    cp /run/host-containerd/io.containerd.runtime.v2.task/default/admin/rootfs/home/ec2-user/snapshot.db /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-snapshot.db
    
    # setup the etcd environment
    export ETCD_NAME=$(cat /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd | grep -wA1 ETCD_NAME | tail -1 | grep -oE '[^ ]+$')
    export ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=$(cat /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd | grep -wA1 ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS | tail -1 | grep -oE '[^ ]+$')
    export ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER=$(cat /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd | grep -wA1 ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER | tail -1 | grep -oE '[^ ]+$')
    export INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster-1"
    
    # get the container ID corresponding to etcd pod
    export ETCD_CONTAINER_ID=$(ctr -n k8s.io c ls | grep -w "etcd-io" | head -1 | cut -d " " -f1)
    
    # run the restore command
    ctr -n k8s.io t exec -t --exec-id etcd ${ETCD_CONTAINER_ID} etcdctl \
        snapshot restore /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-snapshot.db \
        --name=${ETCD_NAME} \
        --initial-cluster=${ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER} \
        --initial-cluster-token=${INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN} \
        --initial-advertise-peer-urls=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS} \
        --cacert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/ca.crt \
        --cert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.crt \
        --key=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.key
        
    # run the restore command
    ctr -n k8s.io t exec -t --exec-id etcd ${ETCD_CONTAINER_ID} etcdutl \
        snapshot restore /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-snapshot.db \
        --name=${ETCD_NAME} \
        --initial-cluster=${ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER} \
        --initial-cluster-token=${INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN} \
        --initial-advertise-peer-urls=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS} \
        --cacert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/ca.crt \
        --cert=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.crt \
        --key=/var/lib/etcd/pki/server.key
        
    # move the etcd data files out of the container to a temporary location
    mkdir -p /tmp/etcd-files
    $(ctr -n k8s.io snapshot mounts /tmp/etcd-files/ ${ETCD_CONTAINER_ID})
    mv /tmp/etcd-files/${ETCD_NAME}.etcd /tmp/
    
    # stop the etcd pod
    mkdir -p /tmp/temp-manifests
    mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/* /tmp/temp-manifests
    
    # backup the previous etcd data files
    mv /var/lib/etcd/data/member /var/lib/etcd/data/member.backup
    
    # copy over the new etcd data files to the data directory
    mv /tmp/${ETCD_NAME}.etcd/member /var/lib/etcd/data/
    
    # copy the WAL folder for the cluster member data before the restore to the data/member directory
    cp -r /var/lib/etcd/data/member.backup/wal /var/lib/etcd/data/member
    
    # re-start the etcd pod
    mv /tmp/temp-manifests/* /etc/kubernetes/manifests/
    
    • Cleanup temporary files and folders
    # clean up all the temporary files
    umount /tmp/etcd-files
    rm -rf /tmp/temp-manifests /tmp/${ETCD_NAME}.etcd /tmp/etcd-files/ /var/lib/etcd/data/etcd-snapshot.db
    
    • Exit out of the Bottlerocket node
    # exit from bottlerocket's root shell
    exit
    
    # exit from bottlerocket node
    exit
    

    Repeat this step for each etcd node.

  5. Restart control plane core components

    • You can use this command to get the control plane node IPs which you can use to SSH
    echo -n ${CONTROL_PLANE_ENDPOINTS[@]} | xargs -I {} -d " " echo "{}"
    
    • SSH into the node and restart the core components. You must do this for each control plane node.
    # SSH into the control plane node using the IPs printed in previous command
    ssh -i ${SSH_KEY} ${SSH_USERNAME}@<Control Plane IP from previous command>
    
    # drop into bottlerocket root shell
    sudo sheltie
    
    # move the static manifests back to the right directory
    mv /tmp/temp-manifests/* /etc/kubernetes/manifests/
    
    • Exit out of the Bottlerocket node
    # exit from bottlerocket's root shell
    exit
    
    # exit from bottlerocket node
    exit
    

    Repeat these steps for each control plane node.

  6. Unpause the cluster reconcilers

    Once the etcd restore is complete, you can resume the cluster reconcilers.

    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused- --kubeconfig=$MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG
    
    kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": false}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig=$MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG
    

At this point you should have the etcd cluster restored to snapshot. To verify, you can run the following commands:

kubectl --kubeconfig=${CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG} get nodes

kubectl --kubeconfig=${CLUSTER_KUBECONFIG} get pods -A

You may also need to restart some deployments/daemonsets manually if they are stuck in an unhealthy state.

9.3 - Ubuntu and RHEL

How to backup and restore External ETCD on Ubuntu/RHEL OS EKS Anywhere cluster

This page contains steps for backing up a cluster by taking an etcd snapshot, and restoring the cluster from a snapshot. These steps are for an EKS Anywhere cluster provisioned using the external etcd topology (selected by default) with Ubuntu OS.

Use case

EKS-Anywhere clusters use etcd as the backing store. Taking a snapshot of etcd backs up the entire cluster data. This can later be used to restore a cluster back to an earlier state if required. Etcd backups can be taken prior to cluster upgrade, so if the upgrade doesn’t go as planned you can restore from the backup.

Backup

Etcd offers a built-in snapshot mechanism. You can take a snapshot using the etcdctl snapshot save or etcdutl snapshot save command by following the steps given below.

  1. Login to any one of the etcd VMs
ssh -i $PRIV_KEY ec2-user@$ETCD_VM_IP
  1. Run the etcdctl or etcdutl command to take a snapshot with the following steps
        sudo su
        source /etc/etcd/etcdctl.env
        etcdctl snapshot save snapshot.db
        chown ec2-user snapshot.db
        
        sudo su
        etcdutl snapshot save snapshot.db
        chown ec2-user snapshot.db
        

  1. Exit the VM. Copy the snapshot from the VM to your local/admin setup where you can save snapshots in a secure place. Before running scp, make sure you don’t already have a snapshot file saved by the same name locally.
scp -i $PRIV_KEY ec2-user@$ETCD_VM_IP:/home/ec2-user/snapshot.db . 

NOTE: This snapshot file contains all information stored in the cluster, so make sure you save it securely (encrypt it).

Restore

Restoring etcd is a 2-part process. The first part is restoring etcd using the snapshot, creating a new data-dir for etcd. The second part is replacing the current etcd data-dir with the one generated after restore. During etcd data-dir replacement, we cannot have any kube-apiserver instances running in the cluster. So we will first stop all instances of kube-apiserver and other controlplane components using the following steps for every controlplane VM:

Pausing Etcdadm cluster and control plane machine health check reconcile

During restore, it is required to pause the Etcdadm controller reconcile and the control plane machine healths checks for the target cluster (whether it is management or workload cluster). To do that, you need to add a cluster.x-k8s.io/paused annotation to the target cluster’s etcdadmclusters and machinehealthchecks resources. For example,

kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused=true --kubeconfig mgmt-cluster.kubeconfig

kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": true}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig mgmt-cluster.kubeconfig

Stopping the controlplane components

  1. Login to a controlplane VM
ssh -i $PRIV_KEY ec2-user@$CONTROLPLANE_VM_IP
  1. Stop controlplane components by moving the static pod manifests under a temp directory:
sudo su
mkdir temp-manifests
mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/*.yaml temp-manifests
  1. Repeat these steps for all other controlplane VMs

After this you can restore etcd from a saved snapshot using the snapshot save command following the steps given below.

Restoring from the snapshot

  1. The snapshot file should be made available in every etcd VM of the cluster. You can copy it to each etcd VM using this command:
scp -i $PRIV_KEY snapshot.db ec2-user@$ETCD_VM_IP:/home/ec2-user
  1. To run the etcdctl or etcdutl snapshot restore command, you need to provide the following configuration parameters:
  • name: This is the name of the etcd member. The value of this parameter should match the value used while starting the member. This can be obtained by running:
export ETCD_NAME=$(cat /etc/etcd/etcd.env | grep ETCD_NAME | awk -F'=' '{print $2}')
  • initial-advertise-peer-urls: This is the advertise peer URL with which this etcd member was configured. It should be the exact value with which this etcd member was started. This can be obtained by running:
export ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=$(cat /etc/etcd/etcd.env | grep ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS | awk -F'=' '{print $2}')
  • initial-cluster: This should be a comma-separated mapping of etcd member name and its peer URL. For this, get the ETCD_NAME and ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS values for each member and join them. And then use this exact value for all etcd VMs. For example, for a 3 member etcd cluster this is what the value would look like (The command below cannot be run directly without substituting the required variables and is meant to be an example)
export ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER=${ETCD_NAME_1}=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS_1},${ETCD_NAME_2}=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS_2},${ETCD_NAME_3}=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS_3}
  • initial-cluster-token: Set this to a unique value and use the same value for all etcd members of the cluster. It can be any value such as etcd-cluster-1 as long as it hasn’t been used before.
  1. Gather the required env vars for the restore command
cat <<EOF >> restore.env
export ETCD_NAME=$(cat /etc/etcd/etcd.env | grep ETCD_NAME | awk -F'=' '{print $2}')
export ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=$(cat /etc/etcd/etcd.env | grep ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS | awk -F'=' '{print $2}')
EOF

cat /etc/etcd/etcdctl.env >> restore.env
  1. Make sure you form the correct ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER value using all etcd members, and set it as an env var in the restore.env file created in the above step.

  2. Once you have obtained all the right values, run the following commands to restore etcd replacing the required values:

        sudo su
        source restore.env
        etcdctl snapshot restore snapshot.db \
            --name=${ETCD_NAME} \
            --initial-cluster=${ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER} \
            --initial-cluster-token=etcd-cluster-1 \
            --initial-advertise-peer-urls=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS}
        
        sudo su
        source restore.env
        etcdutl snapshot restore snapshot.db \
            --name=${ETCD_NAME} \
            --initial-cluster=${ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER} \
            --initial-cluster-token=etcd-cluster-1 \
            --initial-advertise-peer-urls=${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS}
        

  3. This is going to create a new data-dir for the restored contents under a new directory {ETCD_NAME}.etcd. To start using this, restart etcd with the new data-dir with the following steps:

systemctl stop etcd.service
mv /var/lib/etcd/member /var/lib/etcd/member.bak
mv ${ETCD_NAME}.etcd/member /var/lib/etcd/
  1. Perform this directory swap on all etcd VMs, and then start etcd again on those VMs
systemctl start etcd.service

NOTE: Until the etcd process is started on all VMs, it might appear stuck on the VMs where it was started first, but this should be temporary.

Starting the controlplane components

  1. Login to a controlplane VM
ssh -i $PRIV_KEY ec2-user@$CONTROLPLANE_VM_IP
  1. Start the controlplane components by moving back the static pod manifests from under the temp directory to the /etc/kubernetes/manifests directory:
mv temp-manifests/*.yaml /etc/kubernetes/manifests
  1. Repeat these steps for all other controlplane VMs
  2. It may take a few minutes for the kube-apiserver and the other components to get restarted. After this you should be able to access all objects present in the cluster at the time the backup was taken.

Resuming Etcdadm cluster and control plane machine health checks reconcile

Resume Etcdadm cluster reconcile and control plane machine health checks for the target cluster by removing the cluster.x-k8s.io/paused annotation in the target cluster’s resource. For example,

kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused- --kubeconfig mgmt-cluster.kubeconfig

kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": false}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig mgmt-cluster.kubeconfig

10 - Support

Getting support for your clusters

10.1 - Purchase EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscriptions

Steps to purchase an EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscription

You can purchase EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscriptions with the Amazon EKS console, API, or AWS CLI. When you purchase a subscription, you can choose a 1-year term or a 3-year term, and you are billed monthly throughout the term. You can configure your subscription to automatically renew at the end of the term, and you can cancel your subscription within the first 7 days of purchase at no charge. When the status of your subscription is Active, the subscription term starts, licenses are available in AWS License Manager for your EKS Anywhere clusters, and your AWS account has access to Amazon EKS Anywhere Curated Packages.

For pricing, reference the EKS Anywhere Pricing Page.

Create Subscriptions

NOTE When you purchase the subscription, you have a 7-day grace period to cancel the contract by creating a ticket at AWS Support Center. After the 7-day grace period, if you do not cancel the contract, your AWS account ID is invoiced. Payment is charged monthly.

Prerequisites

  • Before you create a subscription, you must onboard to use AWS License Manager. See the AWS License Manager documentation for instructions.
  • Only auto renewal and tags can be changed after subscription creation. Other attributes such as the subscription name, number of licenses, or term length cannot be modified after subscription creation.
  • You can purchase Amazon EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscriptions in the following AWS Regions: US East (Ohio), US East (N. Virginia), US West (N. California), US West (Oregon), Africa (Cape Town), Asia Pacific (Hong Kong), Asia Pacific (Hyderabad), Asia Pacific (Jakarta), Asia Pacific (Melbourne), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Osaka), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Canada (Central), Europe (Frankfurt), Europe (Ireland), Europe (London), Europe (Milan), Europe (Paris), Europe (Stockholm), Europe (Zurich), Israel (Tel Aviv), Middle East (Bahrain), Middle East (UAE), and South America (Sao Paulo).
  • An individual subscription can have up to 100 licenses.
  • An individual account can have up to 10 subscriptions.
  • You can create a single subscription at a time.

AWS Management Console

  1. Open the Amazon EKS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/eks/home#/eks-anywhere.
  2. Click the Create subscription button on the right side of the screen.
  3. On the Specify subscription details page, select an offer (1 year term or 3 year term).
  4. Configure the following fields:
  • Name - a name for your subscription. It must be unique in your AWS account in the AWS Region you’re creating the subscription in. The name can contain only alphanumeric characters (case-sensitive), hyphens, and underscores. It must start with an alphabetic character and can’t be longer than 100 characters. This value cannot be changed after creating the subscription.
  • Number of licenses - the number of licenses to include in the subscription. This value cannot be changed after creating the subscription.
  • Auto renewal - if enabled, the subscription will automatically renew at the end of the term.
  1. (Optional) Configure tags. A tag is a label that you assign to an EKS Anywhere subscription. Each tag consists of a key and an optional value. You can use tags to search and filter your resources.
  2. Click Next.
  3. On the Review and purchase page, confirm the specifications for your subscription are correct.
  4. Click Purchase on the bottom right hand side of the screen to purchase your subscription.

After the subscription is created, the next step is to apply the licenses to your EKS Anywhere clusters. Reference the License cluster page for instructions.

AWS CLI

To install or update the AWS CLI, reference the AWS documentation. If you already have the AWS CLI installed, update to the latest version of the CLI before running the following commands.

Create your subscription with the following command. Before running the command, make the following replacements:

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that will host your subscription (for example us-west-2). It is recommended to create your subscription in the AWS Region closest to your on-premises deployment.
  • Replace my-subscription with a name for your subscription. It must be unique in your AWS account in the AWS Region you’re creating the subscription in. The name can contain only alphanumeric characters (case-sensitive), hyphens, and underscores. It must start with an alphabetic character and can’t be longer than 100 characters.
  • Replace license-quantity 1 with the number of licenses to include in the subscription.
  • Replace term 'unit=MONTHS,duration=12' with your preferred term length. Valid options for duration are 12 and 36. The only accepted unit is MONTHS.
  • Optionally, replace tags 'environment=prod' with your preferred tags for your subscription.
  • Optionally, enable auto renewal with the --auto-renew flag. Subscriptions will not auto renew by default.
aws eks create-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --name 'my-subscription' \
  --license-quantity 1 \
  --term 'unit=MONTHS,duration=12' \
  --tags 'environment=prod' \
  --no-auto-renew
Expand for sample command output
{
    "subscription": {
        "id": "e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "arn": "arn:aws:eks:us-west-2:<account-id>:eks-anywhere-subscription/e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "name": "my-subscription",
        "createdAt": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "effectiveDate": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "expirationDate": "2024-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "licenseQuantity": 1,
        "licenseType": "CLUSTER",
        "term": {
            "duration": 12,
            "unit": "MONTHS"
        },
        "status": "CREATING",
        "packageRegistry": "<packages-registry>.dkr.ecr.<region>.amazonaws.com",
        "autoRenew": false,
        "licenseArns": [],
        "tags": {
            "environment": "prod"
        }
    }
}

It may take several minutes for the subscription to become ACTIVE. You can query the status of your subscription with the following command. Replace my-subscription-id with the id of your subscription. Do not proceed to license your EKS Anywhere clusters until the output of the command returns ACTIVE.

aws eks describe-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --id 'my-subscription-id' \
  --query 'subscription.status'

After the subscription is created, the next step is to apply the licenses to your EKS Anywhere clusters. Reference the License cluster page for instructions.

View and Update Subscriptions

After you create a subscription, you can only update the auto renewal and tags configurations.

AWS Management Console

  1. Open the Amazon EKS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/eks/home#/eks-anywhere.
  2. Navigate to the Active Subscriptions or Inactive Subscriptions tab.
  3. Optionally, choose the selection button for your EKS Anywhere subscription and click the Change auto renewal button to change your auto renewal setting.
  4. Click the link of your EKS Anywhere subscription name to view details including subscription start and end dates, associated licenses, and tags.
  5. Optionally, edit tags by clicking the Manage Tags button.

AWS CLI

List EKS Anywhere subscriptions

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription(s) (for example us-west-2).
aws eks list-eks-anywhere-subscriptions --region 'region-code'
Expand for sample command output
{
    "subscriptions": [
        {
            "id": "e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
            "arn": "arn:aws:eks:<region>:<account-id>:eks-anywhere-subscription/e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
            "name": "my-subscription",
            "createdAt": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
            "effectiveDate": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
            "expirationDate": "2024-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
            "licenseQuantity": 1,
            "licenseType": "CLUSTER",
            "term": {
                "duration": 12,
                "unit": "MONTHS"
            },
            "status": "ACTIVE",
            "packageRegistry": "<account-id>.dkr.ecr.<region>.amazonaws.com",
            "autoRenew": false,
            "licenseArns": [
                "arn:aws:license-manager::<account-id>:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066"
            ],
            "tags": {
                "environment": "prod"
            }
        }
    ]
}

Describe EKS Anywhere subscriptions

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-subscription-id with the id for your subscription (for example e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964).
  • Replace my-subscription with the name for your subscription.

Get subscription details for a single subscription.

aws eks describe-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --id 'my-subscription-id'
Expand for sample command output
{
    "subscription": {
        "id": "e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "arn": "arn:aws:eks:<region>:<account-id>:eks-anywhere-subscription/e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "name": "my-subscription",
        "createdAt": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "effectiveDate": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "expirationDate": "2024-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "licenseQuantity": 1,
        "licenseType": "CLUSTER",
        "term": {
            "duration": 12,
            "unit": "MONTHS"
        },
        "status": "ACTIVE",
        "packageRegistry": "<packages-registry>.dkr.ecr.<region>.amazonaws.com",
        "autoRenew": false,
        "licenseArns": [
            "arn:aws:license-manager::<account-id>:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066"
        ],
        "tags": {
            "environment": "prod"
        }
    }
}

Get subscription id with subscription name.

aws eks list-eks-anywhere-subscriptions \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --query 'subscriptions[?name==`my-subscription`].id'

Get subscription arn with subscription name.

aws eks list-eks-anywhere-subscriptions \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --query 'subscriptions[?name==`my-subscription`].arn'

Update EKS Anywhere subscriptions

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-subscription-id with the id for your subscription (for example e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964).

Disable auto renewal

aws eks update-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --id 'my-subscription-id' \
  --no-auto-renew

Enable auto renewal

aws eks update-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --id 'my-subscription-id' \
  --auto-renew

Update tags

aws eks tag-resource \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --resource-arn 'my-subscription-arn' \
  --tags 'geo=boston'

Delete Subscriptions

NOTE Only inactive subscriptions can be deleted. Deleting inactive subscriptions removes them from the AWS Management Console view and API responses.

AWS Management Console

  1. Open the Amazon EKS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/eks/home#/eks-anywhere.
  2. Click the Inactive Subscriptions tab.
  3. Choose the name of the EKS Anywhere subscription to delete and click the Delete subscription.
  4. On the delete subscription confirmation screen, choose Delete.

AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-subscription-id with the id for your subscription (for example e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964).
aws eks delete-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --id 'my-subscription-id'

10.2 - License EKS Anywhere cluster

Apply an EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscription license to your EKS Anywhere cluster

When you purchase an EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscription, licenses are provisioned in AWS License Manager in the AWS account and region you used to purchase the subscription. After purchasing your subscription, you can view your licenses, accept the license grants, and apply the license IDs to your EKS Anywhere clusters. The License ID strings are used when you create support cases to validate your cluster is eligible to receive support.

View licenses for an EKS Anywhere subscription

You can view the licenses associated with an EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscription in the Amazon EKS Console.

Follow the steps below to view EKS Anywhere licenses with the AWS CLI.

Get license ARNs based on subscription name with the AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-subscription in the --query string with the name for your subscription.
aws eks list-eks-anywhere-subscriptions \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --query 'subscriptions[?name==`my-subscription`].licenseArns[]'

The License ID is the last part of the ARN string. For example, the License ID is shown in bold in the following example: arn:aws:license-manager::12345678910:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066

Get all EKS Anywhere license details with the AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
aws license-manager list-received-licenses \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --filter 'Name=IssuerName,Values=Amazon EKS Anywhere'

Get license details with the AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-license-arn with the license ARN returned from the previous command.
aws license-manager get-license \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --license-arn 'my-license-arn'
Expand for sample command output
{
    "License": {
        "LicenseArn": "arn:aws:license-manager::<account-id>:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066",
        "LicenseName": "EKS Anywhere license for subscription my-subscription",
        "ProductName": "Amazon EKS Anywhere",
        "ProductSKU": "EKS Anywhere e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964:9444bd0d",
        "Issuer": {
            "Name": "Amazon EKS Anywhere",
            "KeyFingerprint": "aws:<account-id>:Amazon EKS Anywhere:issuer-fingerprint"
        },
        "HomeRegion": "<region>",
        "Status": "AVAILABLE",
        "Validity": {
            "Begin": "2023-10-10T13:33:36.000Z",
            "End": "2024-10-11T13:33:36.000Z"
        },
        "Beneficiary": "<account-id>",
        "Entitlements": [
            {
                "Name": "EKS Anywhere for e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
                "MaxCount": 1,
                "Overage": false,
                "Unit": "Count",
                "AllowCheckIn": false
            }
        ],
        "ConsumptionConfiguration": {
            "RenewType": "None",
            "BorrowConfiguration": {
                "AllowEarlyCheckIn": true,
                "MaxTimeToLiveInMinutes": 527040
            }
        },
        "CreateTime": "1696945150",
        "Version": "1"
    }
}

Accept EKS Anywhere license grant

You can accept the license grants associated with an EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscription in the AWS License Manager Console following the instructions in the AWS License Manager documentation . Navigate to the license for your subscription and client Accept and Activate in the top right of the license detail page.

See the steps below for accepting EKS Anywhere license grants with the AWS CLI.

Get license grant ARNs with subscription name with the AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-subscription in the --query string with the name for your subscription.
aws license-manager list-received-licenses \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --filter 'Name=IssuerName,Values=Amazon EKS Anywhere' \
  --query 'Licenses[?LicenseName==`EKS Anywhere license for subscription my-subscription`].LicenseMetadata[].Value'

Accept the license grant with the AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-grant-arn with the grant ARN returned from the previous command. If you have multiple grants, repeat for each grant ARN.
aws license-manager accept-grant \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --grant-arn 'my-grant-arn'

Activate license grant with the AWS CLI

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-grant-arn with the grant ARN returned from the previous command. If you have multiple grants, repeat for each grant ARN.
  • Replace my-client-token with a unique, case-sensitive identifier that you provide to ensure the idempotency of the request (for example e75f7f81-1b0b-47b4-85b4-5cbeb7ffb921).
aws license-manager create-grant-version \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --grant-arn 'my-grant-arn' \
  --status 'ACTIVE' \
  --client-token 'my-client-token'

Apply a license to an EKS Anywhere cluster

You can apply a license to an EKS Anywhere cluster during or after cluster creation for standalone or management clusters. For workload clusters, you must apply the license after cluster creation. A license can only be bound to one EKS Anywhere cluster at a time, and you can only receive support for your EKS Anywhere cluster if it has a valid and active license. In the examples below, the <license-id-string> is the License ID, for example l-93ea2875c88f455288737835fa0abbc8.

To apply a license during standalone or management cluster creation, export the EKSA_LICENSE environment variable before running the eksctl anywhere create cluster command.

export EKSA_LICENSE='<license-id-string>'

To apply a license to an existing cluster, apply the following Secret to your cluster, replacing <license-id-string> with your License ID.

kubectl apply -f - <<EOF 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: eksa-license
  namespace: eksa-system
stringData:
  license: "<license-id-string>"
type: Opaque
EOF

10.3 - Share access to EKS Anywhere Curated Packages

Share access to EKS Anywhere Curated Packages with other AWS accounts

When an EKS Anywhere Enterprise Subscription is created, the AWS account that created the subscription is granted access to EKS Anywhere Curated Packages in the AWS Region where the subscription is created. To enable access to EKS Anywhere Curated Packages for other AWS accounts in your organization, follow the instructions below. The instructions below use 111111111111 as the source account, and 999999999999 as the destination account.

1. Save EKS Anywhere Curated Packages registry account for your subscription

In this step, you will get the Amazon ECR packages registry account associated with your subscription. Run the following command with the account that created the subscription and save the 12-digit account ID from the output string.

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace my-subscription-id with the id for your subscription (for example e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964).
aws eks describe-eks-anywhere-subscription \
  --region 'region-code' \
  --id 'my-subscription-id' \
  --query 'subscription.packageRegistry'

The output has the following structure: “.dkr.ecr..amazonaws.com”. Save the <packages-account-id> for the next step.

Alternatively, you can use the following table to identify the packages registry account for the AWS Region hosting your subscription.

Expand for packages registry to AWS Region table
AWS Region Packages Registry Account
us-west-2 346438352937
us-west-1 440460740297
us-east-1 331113665574
us-east-2 297090588151
ap-east-1 804323328300
ap-northeast-1 143143237519
ap-northeast-2 447311122189
ap-south-1 357015164304
ap-south-2 388483641499
ap-southeast-1 654894141437
ap-southeast-2 299286866837
ap-southeast-3 703305448174
ap-southeast-4 106475008004
af-south-1 783635962247
ca-central-1 064352486547
eu-central-1 364992945014
eu-central-2 551422459769
eu-north-1 826441621985
eu-south-1 787863792200
eu-west-1 090204409458
eu-west-2 371148654473
eu-west-3 282646289008
il-central-1 131750224677
me-central-1 454241080883
me-south-1 158698011868
sa-east-1 517745584577

2. Create an IAM Policy with ECR Login and Read permissions

Run the following with the account that created the subscription (in this example 111111111111).

  1. Open the IAM console
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Policies and then choose Create policy
  3. On the Specify permissions page, select JSON
  4. Paste the following permission specification into the Policy editor. Replace <packages-account-id> in the permission specification with the account you saved in the previous step.
{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Sid": "ECRRead",
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": [
        "ecr:DescribeImageScanFindings",
        "ecr:GetDownloadUrlForLayer",
        "ecr:DescribeRegistry",
        "ecr:DescribePullThroughCacheRules",
        "ecr:DescribeImageReplicationStatus",
        "ecr:ListTagsForResource",
        "ecr:ListImages",
        "ecr:BatchGetImage",
        "ecr:DescribeImages",
        "ecr:DescribeRepositories",
        "ecr:BatchCheckLayerAvailability"
      ],
      "Resource": "arn:aws:ecr:*:<packages-account-id>:repository/*"
    },
    {
      "Sid": "ECRLogin",
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Action": [
        "ecr:GetAuthorizationToken"
      ],
      "Resource": "*"
    }
  ]
}
  1. Choose Next
  2. On the Review and create page, enter a Policy name such as curated-packages-policy
  3. Choose Create policy

3. Create an IAM role with permissions for EKS Anywhere Curated Packages

Run the following with the account that created the subscription.

  1. Open the IAM console
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Roles and then choose Create role
  3. On the Select trusted entity page, choose Custom trust policy as the Trusted entity type. Add the following trust policy, replacing 999999999999 with the AWS account receiving permissions. This policy enables account 999999999999 to assume the role.
{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Effect": "Allow",
      "Principal": {
        "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::999999999999:root"
      },
      "Action": "sts:AssumeRole"
    }
  ]
}
  1. Choose Next
  2. On the Add permissions page, search and select the policy you created in the previous step (for example curated-packages-policy).
  3. Choose Next
  4. On the Name, review, and create page, enter a Role name such as curated-packages-role
  5. Choose Create role

4. Create an IAM user with permissions to assume the IAM role from the source account

Run the following with the account that is receiving access to curated packages (in this example 999999999999) .

Create a policy to assume the IAM role

  1. Open the IAM console
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Policies and then choose Create policy
  3. On the Specify permissions page, select JSON
  4. Paste the following permission specification into the Policy editor. Replace 111111111111 with the account used to create the subscription, and curated-packages-role with the name of the role you created in the previous step.
{
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": {
    "Effect": "Allow",
    "Action": "sts:AssumeRole",
    "Resource": "arn:aws:iam::111111111111:role/curated-packages-role"
  }
}
  1. Choose Next
  2. On the Review and create page, enter a Policy name such as curated-packages-assume-role-policy
  3. Choose Create policy

Create an IAM user to assume the IAM role

  1. Open the IAM console
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Users and then choose Create user
  3. Enter a User name such as curated-packages-user
  4. Choose Next
  5. On the Set permissions page, choose Attach policies directly, and search and select the assume role policy you created above.
  6. Choose Next
  7. On the Review and create page, choose Create user

5. Generate access and secret key for IAM user

Run the following with the account that is receiving access to curated packages.

  1. Open the IAM console
  2. In the navigation pane, choose Users and the user you created in the previous step.
  3. On the users detail page in the top Summary section, choose Create access key under Access key 1
  4. On the Access key best practices & alternatives page, select Command Line Interface (CLI)
  5. Confirm that you understand the recommendation and want to proceed to create an access key. Choose Next.
  6. On the Set description tag page, choose Create access key
  7. On the Retrieve access keys page, copy the Access key and Secret access key to a safe location.
  8. Choose Done

6. Create an AWS config file for IAM user

Run the following with the account that is receiving access to curated packages.

Create an AWS config file with the assumed role and the access/secret key you generated in the previous step. Replace the values in the example below based on your configuration.

  • Replace region-code with the AWS Region that hosts your subscription (for example us-west-2).
  • Replace role-arn with the role you created in Step 3
  • Replace aws_access_key_id and aws_secret_access_key that you created in Step 5
[default]
source_profile=curated-packages-user
role_arn=arn:aws:iam::111111111111:role/curated-packages-role
region=region-code

[profile curated-packages-user]
aws_access_key_id=AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE
aws_secret_access_key=wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY

7. Add the AWS config to your EKS Anywhere cluster

Run the following with the account that is receiving access to curated packages.

New Clusters

For new standalone or management clusters, pass the AWS config file path that you created in the previous step as the EKSA_AWS_CONFIG_FILE environment variable. The EKS Anywhere CLI detects the environment variable when you run eksctl anywhere create cluster. Note, the credentials are used by the Curated Packages Controller, which should only run on standalone or management clusters.

Existing Clusters

For existing standalone or management clusters, the AWS config information will be passed as a Kubernetes Secret. You need to generate the base64 encoded string from the AWS config file and then pass the encoded string in the config field of the aws-secret Secret in the eksa-packages namespace.

Encode the AWS config file. Replace <aws-config-file> with the name of the file you created in the previous step.

cat <aws-config-file> | base64

Create a yaml specification called aws-secret.yaml, replacing <encoded-aws-config-file> with the encoded output from the previous step.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: aws-secret
  namespace: eksa-packages
type: Opaque
data:
  AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID: ""
  AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY: ""
  REGION: ""
  config: <encoded-aws-config-file>

Apply the Secret to your standalone or management cluster.

kubectl apply -f aws-secret.yaml

10.4 - Generate an EKS Anywhere support bundle

Using the EKS Anywhere diagnostics support bundle

This guide covers the use of the EKS Anywhere Support Bundle for troubleshooting and support. This allows you to gather cluster information, save it to your administrative machine, and perform analysis of the results.

EKS Anywhere leverages troubleshoot.sh to collect and analyze Kubernetes cluster logs, cluster resource information, and other relevant debugging information.

EKS Anywhere has two Support Bundle commands:

eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle will generate a support bundle for your cluster, collecting relevant information, archiving it locally, and performing analysis of the results.

eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle-config will generate a support bundle config yaml file for you to customize.

Do not add personally identifiable information (PII) or other confidential or sensitive information to your support bundle. If you provide the support bundle to get support from AWS, it will be accessible to other AWS services, including AWS Support.

Collecting a Support Bundle and running analyzers

eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle

generate support-bundle will allow you to quickly collect relevant logs and cluster resources and save them locally in an archive file. This archive can then be used to aid in further troubleshooting and debugging.

If you provide a cluster configuration file containing your cluster spec using the -f flag, generate support-bundle will customize the auto-generated support bundle collectors and analyzers to match the state of your cluster.

If you provide a support bundle configuration file using the --bundle-config flag, for example one generated with generate support-bundle-config, generate support-bundle will use the provided configuration when collecting information from your cluster and analyzing the results.

Flags:
      --bundle-config string   Bundle Config file to use when generating support bundle
  -f, --filename string        Filename that contains EKS-A cluster configuration
  -h, --help                   Help for support-bundle
      --since string           Collect pod logs in the latest duration like 5s, 2m, or 3h.
      --since-time string      Collect pod logs after a specific datetime(RFC3339) like 2021-06-28T15:04:05Z
  -w, --w-config string        Kubeconfig file to use when creating support bundle for a workload cluster

Collecting and analyzing a bundle

You only need to run a single command to generate a support bundle, collect information and analyze the output: eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle -f my-cluster.yaml

This command will collect the information from your cluster and run an analysis of the collected information.

The collected information will be saved to your local disk in an archive which can be used for debugging and obtaining additional in-depth support.

The analysis will be printed to your console.

Collect phase:

$ ./bin/eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle -f ./testcluster100.yaml
 ⏳ Collecting support bundle from cluster, this can take a while...
 

Analysis phase:

- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: gitopsconfigs.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com
  message: gitopsconfigs.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com is present on the cluster
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: vspheredatacenterconfigs.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com
  message: vspheredatacenterconfigs.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com is present on the cluster
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: vspheremachineconfigs.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com
  message: vspheremachineconfigs.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com is present on the cluster
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capv-controller-manager Status
  message: capv-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capv-controller-manager Status
  message: capv-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: coredns Status
  message: coredns is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: cert-manager-webhook Status
  message: cert-manager-webhook is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: cert-manager-cainjector Status
  message: cert-manager-cainjector is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: cert-manager Status
  message: cert-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-kubeadm-control-plane-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-controller-manager Status
  message: capi-kubeadm-bootstrap-controller-manager is running.
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com
  message: clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com is present on the cluster
- URI: ""
  isFail: false
  isPass: true
  isWarn: false
  title: bundles.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com
  message: bundles.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com is present on the cluster

Archive phase:

Support bundle archive created  {"path": "support-bundle-2023-08-11T18_17_29.tar.gz"}

Generating a custom Support Bundle configuration for your EKS Anywhere Cluster

EKS Anywhere will automatically generate a support bundle based on your cluster configuration; however, if you’d like to customize the support bundle to collect specific information, you can generate your own support bundle configuration yaml for EKS Anywhere to run on your cluster.

eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle-config will generate a default support bundle configuration and print it as yaml.

eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle-config -f myCluster.yaml will generate a support bundle configuration customized to your cluster and print it as yaml.

To run a customized support bundle configuration yaml file on your cluster, save this output to a file and run the command eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle using the flag --bundle-config.

eksctl anywhere generate support-bundle-config
Flags:
  -f, --filename string   Filename that contains EKS-A cluster configuration
  -h, --help              Help for support-bundle-config

10.5 -

{
    "subscription": {
        "id": "e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "arn": "arn:aws:eks:us-west-2:<account-id>:eks-anywhere-subscription/e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "name": "my-subscription",
        "createdAt": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "effectiveDate": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "expirationDate": "2024-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "licenseQuantity": 1,
        "licenseType": "CLUSTER",
        "term": {
            "duration": 12,
            "unit": "MONTHS"
        },
        "status": "CREATING",
        "packageRegistry": "<packages-registry>.dkr.ecr.<region>.amazonaws.com",
        "autoRenew": false,
        "licenseArns": [],
        "tags": {
            "environment": "prod"
        }
    }
}

10.6 -

{
    "subscription": {
        "id": "e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "arn": "arn:aws:eks:<region>:<account-id>:eks-anywhere-subscription/e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
        "name": "my-subscription",
        "createdAt": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "effectiveDate": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "expirationDate": "2024-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
        "licenseQuantity": 1,
        "licenseType": "CLUSTER",
        "term": {
            "duration": 12,
            "unit": "MONTHS"
        },
        "status": "ACTIVE",
        "packageRegistry": "<packages-registry>.dkr.ecr.<region>.amazonaws.com",
        "autoRenew": false,
        "licenseArns": [
            "arn:aws:license-manager::<account-id>:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066"
        ],
        "tags": {
            "environment": "prod"
        }
    }
}

10.7 -

{
    "License": {
        "LicenseArn": "arn:aws:license-manager::<account-id>:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066",
        "LicenseName": "EKS Anywhere license for subscription my-subscription",
        "ProductName": "Amazon EKS Anywhere",
        "ProductSKU": "EKS Anywhere e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964:9444bd0d",
        "Issuer": {
            "Name": "Amazon EKS Anywhere",
            "KeyFingerprint": "aws:<account-id>:Amazon EKS Anywhere:issuer-fingerprint"
        },
        "HomeRegion": "<region>",
        "Status": "AVAILABLE",
        "Validity": {
            "Begin": "2023-10-10T13:33:36.000Z",
            "End": "2024-10-11T13:33:36.000Z"
        },
        "Beneficiary": "<account-id>",
        "Entitlements": [
            {
                "Name": "EKS Anywhere for e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
                "MaxCount": 1,
                "Overage": false,
                "Unit": "Count",
                "AllowCheckIn": false
            }
        ],
        "ConsumptionConfiguration": {
            "RenewType": "None",
            "BorrowConfiguration": {
                "AllowEarlyCheckIn": true,
                "MaxTimeToLiveInMinutes": 527040
            }
        },
        "CreateTime": "1696945150",
        "Version": "1"
    }
}

10.8 -

{
    "subscriptions": [
        {
            "id": "e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
            "arn": "arn:aws:eks:<region>:<account-id>:eks-anywhere-subscription/e29fd0d2-d8a8-4ed4-be54-c6c0dd0f7964",
            "name": "my-subscription",
            "createdAt": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
            "effectiveDate": "2023-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
            "expirationDate": "2024-10-10T08:33:36.869000-05:00",
            "licenseQuantity": 1,
            "licenseType": "CLUSTER",
            "term": {
                "duration": 12,
                "unit": "MONTHS"
            },
            "status": "ACTIVE",
            "packageRegistry": "<account-id>.dkr.ecr.<region>.amazonaws.com",
            "autoRenew": false,
            "licenseArns": [
                "arn:aws:license-manager::<account-id>:license:l-4f36acf12e6d491484812927b327c066"
            ],
            "tags": {
                "environment": "prod"
            }
        }
    ]
}

10.9 -

AWS Region Packages Registry Account
us-west-2 346438352937
us-west-1 440460740297
us-east-1 331113665574
us-east-2 297090588151
ap-east-1 804323328300
ap-northeast-1 143143237519
ap-northeast-2 447311122189
ap-south-1 357015164304
ap-south-2 388483641499
ap-southeast-1 654894141437
ap-southeast-2 299286866837
ap-southeast-3 703305448174
ap-southeast-4 106475008004
af-south-1 783635962247
ca-central-1 064352486547
eu-central-1 364992945014
eu-central-2 551422459769
eu-north-1 826441621985
eu-south-1 787863792200
eu-west-1 090204409458
eu-west-2 371148654473
eu-west-3 282646289008
il-central-1 131750224677
me-central-1 454241080883
me-south-1 158698011868
sa-east-1 517745584577

11 - Manage cluster with GitOps

Use Flux to manage clusters with GitOps

GitOps Support (optional)

EKS Anywhere supports a GitOps workflow for the management of your cluster.

When you create a cluster with GitOps enabled, EKS Anywhere will automatically commit your cluster configuration to the provided GitHub repository and install a GitOps toolkit on your cluster which watches that committed configuration file. You can then manage the scale of the cluster by making changes to the version controlled cluster configuration file and committing the changes. Once a change has been detected by the GitOps controller running in your cluster, the scale of the cluster will be adjusted to match the committed configuration file.

If you’d like to learn more about GitOps, and the associated best practices, check out this introduction from Weaveworks .

NOTE: Installing a GitOps controller can be done during cluster creation or through upgrade. In the event that GitOps installation fails, EKS Anywhere cluster creation will continue.

Supported Cluster Properties

Currently, you can manage a subset of cluster properties with GitOps:

Management Cluster

Cluster:

  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.count
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.machineGroupRef.name

WorkerNodes VSphereMachineConfig:

  • datastore
  • diskGiB
  • folder
  • memoryMiB
  • numCPUs
  • resourcePool
  • template
  • users

Workload Cluster

Cluster:

  • kubernetesVersion
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.count
  • controlPlaneConfiguration.machineGroupRef.name
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.count
  • workerNodeGroupConfigurations.machineGroupRef.name
  • identityProviderRefs (Only for kind:OIDCConfig, kind:AWSIamConfig is immutable)

ControlPlane / Etcd / WorkerNodes VSphereMachineConfig:

  • datastore
  • diskGiB
  • folder
  • memoryMiB
  • numCPUs
  • resourcePool
  • template
  • users

OIDCConfig:

  • clientID
  • groupsClaim
  • groupsPrefix
  • issuerUrl
  • requiredClaims.claim
  • requiredClaims.value
  • usernameClaim
  • usernamePrefix

Any other changes to the cluster configuration in the git repository will be ignored. If an immutable field has been changed in a Git repository, there are two ways to find the error message:

  1. If a notification webhook is set up, check the error message in notification channel.
  2. Check the Flux Kustomization Controller log: kubectl logs -f -n flux-system kustomize-controller-****** for error message containing text similar to Invalid value: 1: field is immutable

Getting Started with EKS Anywhere GitOps with Github

In order to use GitOps to manage cluster scaling, you need a couple of things:

Create a GitHub Personal Access Token

Create a Personal Access Token (PAT) to access your provided GitHub repository. It must be scoped for all repo permissions.

NOTE: GitOps configuration only works with hosted github.com and will not work on a self-hosted GitHub Enterprise instances.

This PAT should have at least the following permissions:

GitHub PAT permissions

NOTE: The PAT must belong to the owner of the repository or, if using an organization as the owner, the creator of the PAT must have repo permission in that organization.

You need to set your PAT as the environment variable $EKSA_GITHUB_TOKEN to use it during cluster creation:

export EKSA_GITHUB_TOKEN=ghp_MyValidPersonalAccessTokenWithRepoPermissions

Create GitOps configuration repo

If you have an existing repo you can set that as your repository name in the configuration. If you specify a repo in your FluxConfig which does not exist EKS Anywhere will create it for you. If you would like to create a new repo you can click here to create a new repo.

If your repository contains multiple cluster specification files, store them in sub-folders and specify the configuration path in your cluster specification.

In order to accommodate the management cluster feature, the CLI will now structure the repo directory following a new convention:

clusters
└── management-cluster
    ├── flux-system
    │   └── ...
    ├── management-cluster
    │   └── eksa-system
    │       └── eksa-cluster.yaml
    │       └── kustomization.yaml
    ├── workload-cluster-1
    │   └── eksa-system
    │       └── eksa-cluster.yaml
    └── workload-cluster-2
        └── eksa-system
            └── eksa-cluster.yaml

By default, Flux kustomization reconciles at the management cluster’s root level (./clusters/management-cluster), so both the management cluster and all the workload clusters it manages are synced.

Example GitOps cluster configuration for Github

apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: mynewgitopscluster
spec:
... # collapsed cluster spec fields
# Below added for gitops support
  gitOpsRef:
    kind: FluxConfig
    name: my-cluster-name
---
apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: FluxConfig
metadata:
  name: my-cluster-name
spec:
    github:
      personal: true
      repository: mygithubrepository
      owner: mygithubusername

Create a GitOps enabled cluster

Generate your cluster configuration and add the GitOps configuration. For a full spec reference see the Cluster Spec reference .

NOTE: After your cluster has been created the cluster configuration will automatically be committed to your git repo.

  1. Create an EKS Anywhere cluster with GitOps enabled.

    CLUSTER_NAME=gitops
    eksctl anywhere create cluster -f ${CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
    

Enable GitOps in an existing cluster

You can also install Flux and enable GitOps in an existing cluster by running the upgrade command with updated cluster configuration. For a full spec reference see the Cluster Spec reference .

  1. Upgrade an EKS Anywhere cluster with GitOps enabled.

    CLUSTER_NAME=gitops
    eksctl anywhere upgrade cluster -f ${CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
    

Test GitOps controller

After your cluster has been created, you can test the GitOps controller by modifying the cluster specification.

  1. Clone your git repo and modify the cluster specification. The default path for the cluster file is:

    clusters/$CLUSTER_NAME/eksa-system/eksa-cluster.yaml
    
  2. Modify the workerNodeGroupConfigurations[0].count field with your desired changes.

  3. Commit the file to your git repository

    git add eksa-cluster.yaml
    git commit -m 'Scaling nodes for test'
    git push origin main
    
  4. The Flux controller will automatically make the required changes.

    If you updated your node count, you can use this command to see the current node state.

    kubectl get nodes 
    

Getting Started with EKS Anywhere GitOps with any Git source

You can configure EKS Anywhere to use a generic git repository as the source of truth for GitOps by providing a FluxConfig with a git configuration.

EKS Anywhere requires a valid SSH Known Hosts file and SSH Private key in order to connect to your repository and bootstrap Flux.

Create a Git repository for use by EKS Anywhere and Flux

When using the git provider, EKS Anywhere requires that the configuration repository be pre-initialized. You may re-use an existing repo or use the same repo for multiple management clusters.

Create the repository through your git provider and initialize it with a README.md documenting the purpose of the repository.

Create a Private Key for use by EKS Anywhere and Flux

EKS Anywhere requires a private key to authenticate to your git repository, push the cluster configuration, and configure Flux for ongoing management and monitoring of that configuration. The private key should have permissions to read and write from the repository in question.

It is recommended that you create a new private key for use exclusively by EKS Anywhere. You can use ssh-keygen to generate a new key.

ssh-keygen -t ecdsa -C "my_email@example.com"

Please consult the documentation for your git provider to determine how to add your corresponding public key; for example, if using Github enterprise, you can find the documentation for adding a public key to your github account here .

Add your private key to your SSH agent on your management machine

When using a generic git provider, EKS Anywhere requires that your management machine has a running SSH agent and the private key be added to that SSH agent.

You can start an SSH agent and add your private key by executing the following in your current session:

eval "$(ssh-agent -s)" && ssh-add $EKSA_GIT_PRIVATE_KEY

Create an SSH Known Hosts file for use by EKS Anywhere and Flux

EKS Anywhere needs an SSH known hosts file to verify the identity of the remote git host. A path to a valid known hosts file must be provided to the EKS Anywhere command line via the environment variable EKSA_GIT_KNOWN_HOSTS.

For example, if you have a known hosts file at /home/myUser/.ssh/known_hosts that you want EKS Anywhere to use, set the environment variable EKSA_GIT_KNOWN_HOSTS to the path to that file, /home/myUser/.ssh/known_hosts.

export EKSA_GIT_KNOWN_HOSTS=/home/myUser/.ssh/known_hosts

While you can use your pre-existing SSH known hosts file, it is recommended that you generate a new known hosts file for use by EKS Anywhere that contains only the known-hosts entries required for your git host and key type. For example, if you wanted to generate a known hosts file for a git server located at example.com with key type ecdsa, you can use the OpenSSH utility ssh-keyscan:

ssh-keyscan -t ecdsa example.com >> my_eksa_known_hosts

This will generate a known hosts file which contains only the entry necessary to verify the identity of example.com when using an ecdsa based private key file.

Example FluxConfig cluster configuration for a generic git provider

For a full spec reference see the Cluster Spec reference .

A common repositoryUrl value can be of the format ssh://git@provider.com/$REPO_OWNER/$REPO_NAME.git. This may differ from the default SSH URL given by your provider. Consider these differences between github and CodeCommit URLs:

  • The github.com user interface provides an SSH URL containing a : before the repository owner, rather than a /. Make sure to replace this : with a /, if present.
  • The CodeCommit SSH URL must include SSH-KEY-ID in format ssh://<SSH-Key-ID>@git-codecommit.<region>.amazonaws.com/v1/repos/<repository>.
apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: mynewgitopscluster
spec:
... # collapsed cluster spec fields
# Below added for gitops support
  gitOpsRef:
    kind: FluxConfig
    name: my-cluster-name
---
apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
kind: FluxConfig
metadata:
  name: my-cluster-name
spec:
    git:
      repositoryUrl: ssh://git@provider.com/myAccount/myClusterGitopsRepo.git
      sshKeyAlgorithm: ecdsa

Manage separate workload clusters using Gitops

Follow these steps if you want to use your initial cluster to create and manage separate workload clusters via Gitops.

Prerequisites

  • An existing EKS Anywhere cluster with Gitops enabled. If your existing cluster does not have Gitops installed, see Enable Gitops in an existing cluster. .

  • A cluster configuration file for your new workload cluster.

Create cluster using Gitops

  1. Clone your git repo and add the new cluster specification. Be sure to follow the directory structure defined here :

    clusters/<management-cluster-name>/$CLUSTER_NAME/eksa-system/eksa-cluster.yaml
    

    NOTE: Specify the namespace for all EKS Anywhere objects when you are using GitOps to create new workload clusters (even for the default namespace, use namespace: default on those objects).

    Ensure workload cluster object names are distinct from management cluster object names. Be sure to set the managementCluster field to identify the name of the management cluster.

    Make sure there is a kustomization.yaml file under the namespace directory for the management cluster. Creating a Gitops enabled management cluster with eksctl should create the kustomization.yaml file automatically.

  2. Commit the file to your git repository.

    git add clusters/<management-cluster-name>/$CLUSTER_NAME/eksa-system/eksa-cluster.yaml
    git commit -m 'Creating new workload cluster'
    git push origin main
    
  3. The Flux controller will automatically make the required changes. You can list the workload clusters managed by the management cluster.

    export KUBECONFIG=${PWD}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    kubectl get clusters
    
  4. Check the state of a cluster using kubectl to show the cluster object with its status.

    The status field on the cluster object field holds information about the current state of the cluster.

    kubectl get clusters w01 -o yaml
    

    The cluster has been fully upgraded once the status of the Ready condition is marked True. See the cluster status guide for more information.

  5. The kubeconfig for your new cluster is stored as a secret on the management cluster. You can get credentials and run the test application on your new workload cluster as follows:

    kubectl get secret -n eksa-system w01-kubeconfig -o jsonpath='{.data.value}' | base64 —decode > w01.kubeconfig
    export KUBECONFIG=w01.kubeconfig
    kubectl apply -f "https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/manifests/hello-eks-a.yaml"
    

Upgrade cluster using Gitops

  1. To upgrade the cluster using Gitops, modify the workload cluster yaml file with the desired changes. As an example, to upgrade a cluster with version 1.24 to 1.25 you would change your spec:

     apiVersion: anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1
     kind: Cluster
     metadata:
       name: dev
       namespace: default
     spec:
       controlPlaneConfiguration:
         count: 1
         endpoint:
           host: "198.18.99.49"
         machineGroupRef:
           kind: VSphereMachineConfig
           name: dev
           ...
       kubernetesVersion: "1.25"
       ...
    

    NOTE: If you have a custom machine image for your nodes you may also need to update your MachineConfig with a new template.

  2. Commit the file to your git repository.

    git add eksa-cluster.yaml
    git commit -m 'Upgrading kubernetes version on new workload cluster'
    git push origin main
    

For a comprehensive list of upgradeable fields for VSphere, Snow, and Nutanix, see the upgradeable attributes section .

Delete cluster using Gitops

  1. To delete the cluster using Gitops, delete the workload cluster yaml file from your repository and commit those changes.
    git rm eksa-cluster.yaml
    git commit -m 'Deleting workload cluster'
    git push origin main
    

12 - Manage cluster with Terraform

Use Terraform to manage EKS Anywhere Clusters

NOTE: Support for using Terraform to manage and modify an EKS Anywhere cluster is available for vSphere, Snow, Bare metal, Nutanix and CloudStack clusters.

Using Terraform to manage an EKS Anywhere Cluster (Optional)

This guide explains how you can use Terraform to manage and modify an EKS Anywhere cluster. The guide is meant for illustrative purposes and is not a definitive approach to building production systems with Terraform and EKS Anywhere.

At its heart, EKS Anywhere is a set of Kubernetes CRDs, which define an EKS Anywhere cluster, and a controller, which moves the cluster state to match these definitions. These CRDs, and the EKS-A controller, live on the management cluster or on a self-managed cluster. We can manage a subset of the fields in the EKS Anywhere CRDs with any tool that can interact with the Kubernetes API, like kubectl or, in this case, the Terraform Kubernetes provider.

In this guide, we’ll show you how to import your EKS Anywhere cluster into Terraform state and how to scale your EKS Anywhere worker nodes using the Terraform Kubernetes provider.

Prerequisites

  • An existing EKS Anywhere cluster

  • the latest version of Terraform

  • the latest version of tfk8s , a tool for converting Kubernetes manifest files to Terraform HCL

Guide

  1. Create an EKS-A management cluster, or a self-managed stand-alone cluster.
  1. Set up the Terraform Kubernetes provider Make sure your KUBECONFIG environment variable is set

    export KUBECONFIG=/path/to/my/kubeconfig.kubeconfig
    

    Set an environment variable with your cluster name:

    export MY_EKSA_CLUSTER="myClusterName"
    
    cat << EOF > ./provider.tf
    provider "kubernetes" {
      config_path    = "${KUBECONFIG}"
    }
    EOF
    
  2. Get tfk8s and use it to convert your EKS Anywhere cluster Kubernetes manifest into Terraform HCL:

    • Install tfk8s
    • Convert the manifest into Terraform HCL:
    kubectl get cluster ${MY_EKSA_CLUSTER} -o yaml | tfk8s --strip -o ${MY_EKSA_CLUSTER}.tf
    
  3. Configure the Terraform cluster resource definition generated in step 2

    • Set metadata.generation as a computed field . Add the following to your cluster resource configuration
    computed_fields = ["metadata.generated"]
    
    field_manager {
      force_conflicts = true
    }
    
    • Add the namespace to the metadata of the cluster
    • Remove the generation field from the metadata of the cluster
    • Your Terraform cluster resource should look similar to this:
    computed_fields = ["metadata.generated"]
    field_manager {
      force_conflicts = true
    }
    manifest = {
      "apiVersion" = "anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1"
      "kind" = "Cluster"
      "metadata" = {
        "name" = "MyClusterName"
        "namespace" = "default"
    }
    
  4. Import your EKS Anywhere cluster into terraform state:

    terraform init
    terraform import kubernetes_manifest.cluster_${MY_EKSA_CLUSTER} "apiVersion=anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1,kind=Cluster,namespace=default,name=${MY_EKSA_CLUSTER}"
    

    After you import your cluster, you will need to run terraform apply one time to ensure that the manifest field of your cluster resource is in-sync. This will not change the state of your cluster, but is a required step after the initial import. The manifest field stores the contents of the associated kubernetes manifest, while the object field stores the actual state of the resource.

  5. Modify Your Cluster using Terraform

    • Modify the count value of one of your workerNodeGroupConfigurations, or another mutable field, in the configuration stored in ${MY_EKSA_CLUSTER}.tf file.
    • Check the expected diff between your cluster state and the modified local state via terraform plan

    You should see in the output that the worker node group configuration count field (or whichever field you chose to modify) will be modified by Terraform.

  6. Now, actually change your cluster to match the local configuration:

    terraform apply
    
  7. Observe the change to your cluster. For example:

    kubectl get nodes
    

Manage separate workload clusters using Terraform

Follow these steps if you want to use your initial cluster to create and manage separate workload clusters via Terraform.

NOTE: If you choose to manage your cluster using Terraform, do not use kubectl to edit your cluster objects as this can lead to field manager conflicts.

Prerequisites

  • An existing EKS Anywhere cluster imported into Terraform state. If your existing cluster is not yet imported, see this guide. .
  • A cluster configuration file for your new workload cluster.

Create cluster using Terraform

  1. Create the new cluster configuration Terraform file.

       tfk8s -f new-workload-cluster.yaml -o new-workload-cluster.tf
    

    NOTE: Specify the namespace for all EKS Anywhere objects when you are using Terraform to manage your clusters (even for the default namespace, use "namespace" = "default" on those objects).

    Ensure workload cluster object names are distinct from management cluster object names. Be sure to set the managementCluster field to identify the name of the management cluster.

  2. Ensure that this new Terraform workload cluster configuration exists in the same directory as the management cluster Terraform files.

    my/terraform/config/path
    ├── management-cluster.tf
    ├── new-workload-cluster.tf
    ├── provider.tf
    ├──  ... 
    └──
    
  3. Verify the changes to be applied:

    terraform plan
    
  4. If the plan looks as expected, apply those changes to create the new cluster resources:

    terraform apply
    
  5. You can list the workload clusters managed by the management cluster.

    export KUBECONFIG=${PWD}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME}/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    kubectl get clusters
    
  6. Check the state of a cluster using kubectl to show the cluster object with its status.

    The status field on the cluster object field holds information about the current state of the cluster.

    kubectl get clusters w01 -o yaml
    

    The cluster has been fully upgraded once the status of the Ready condition is marked True. See the cluster status guide for more information.

  7. The kubeconfig for your new cluster is stored as a secret on the management cluster. You can get the workload cluster credentials and run the test application on your new workload cluster as follows:

    kubectl get secret -n eksa-system w01-kubeconfig -o jsonpath='{.data.value}' | base64 --decode > w01.kubeconfig
    export KUBECONFIG=w01.kubeconfig
    kubectl apply -f "https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/manifests/hello-eks-a.yaml"
    

Upgrade cluster using Terraform

  1. To upgrade a workload cluster using Terraform, modify the desired fields in the Terraform resource file. As an example, to upgrade a cluster with version 1.24 to 1.25 you would modify your Terraform cluster resource:

     manifest = {
       "apiVersion" = "anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/v1alpha1"
       "kind" = "Cluster"
       "metadata" = {
         "name" = "MyClusterName"
         "namespace" = "default"
       }
       "spec" = {
         "kubernetesVersion" = "1.25"
          ...
          ...
       }
    

    NOTE: If you have a custom machine image for your nodes you may also need to update your MachineConfig with a new template.

  2. Apply those changes:

    terraform apply
    

For a comprehensive list of upgradeable fields for VSphere, Snow, and Nutanix, see the upgradeable attributes section .

Delete cluster using Terraform

  1. To delete a workload cluster using Terraform, you will need the name of the Terraform cluster resource. This can be found on the first line of your cluster resource definition.
    terraform destroy --target kubernetes_manifest.cluster_w01
    

Appendix

Terraform K8s Provider https://registry.terraform.io/providers/hashicorp/kubernetes/latest/docs

tfk8s https://github.com/jrhouston/tfk8s

13 - Reboot nodes

How to properly reboot a node in an EKS Anywhere cluster

If you need to reboot a node in your cluster for maintenance or any other reason, performing the following steps will help prevent possible disruption of services on those nodes:

  1. On your admin machine, set the following environment variables that will come in handy later
export CLUSTER_NAME=mgmt
export MGMT_KUBECONFIG=${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
  1. Backup cluster

    This ensures that there is an up-to-date cluster state available for restoration in the case that the cluster experiences issues or becomes unrecoverable during reboot.

  2. Verify DHCP lease time will be longer than the maintenance time, and that IPs will be the same before and after maintenance.

    This step is critical in ensuring the cluster will be healthy after reboot. If IPs are not preserved before and after reboot, the cluster may not be recoverable.

  3. Pause the reconciliation of the cluster being shut down.

    This ensures that the EKS Anywhere cluster controller will not reconcile on the nodes that are down and try to remediate them.

    • add the paused annotation to the EKSA clusters and CAPI clusters:
    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused=true --kubeconfig=$MGMT_KUBECONFIG
    
    kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": true}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig=$MGMT_KUBECONFIG
    
  4. For all of the nodes in the cluster, perform the following steps in this order: worker nodes, control plane nodes, and etcd nodes.

    1. Cordon the node so no further workloads are scheduled to run on it:

      kubectl cordon <node-name>
      
    2. Drain the node of all current workloads:

      kubectl drain <node-name>
      
    3. Using the appropriate method for your provider, shut down the node.

  5. Perform system maintenance or other tasks you need to do on each node. Then boot up the node in this order: etcd nodes, control plane nodes, and worker nodes.

  6. Uncordon the nodes so that they can begin receiving workloads again.

    kubectl uncordon <node-name>
    
  7. Remove the paused annotations from EKS Anywhere cluster.

    kubectl annotate clusters.anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com $CLUSTER_NAME anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/paused- --kubeconfig=$MGMT_KUBECONFIG
    
    kubectl patch clusters.cluster.x-k8s.io $CLUSTER_NAME --type merge -p '{"spec":{"paused": false}}' -n eksa-system --kubeconfig=$MGMT_KUBECONFIG
    

14 - Cluster status

What’s in an EKS Anywhere cluster status?

The EKS Anywhere cluster status shows information representing the actual state of the cluster vs the desired cluster specification. This is particularly useful to track the progress of cluster management operations through the cluster lifecyle feature.

Viewing an EKS Anywhere cluster status

First set the CLUSTER_NAME and KUBECONFIG environment variables.

export CLUSTER_NAME=w01
export KUBECONFIG=${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig

To view an EKS Anywhere cluster status, use kubectl command show the status of the cluster object. The output should show the yaml definition of the EKS Anywhere Cluster object which has a status field.

kubectl get clusters $CLUSTER_NAME -o yaml
...
status:
  conditions:
  - lastTransitionTime: "2023-08-15T20:35:15Z"
    status: "True"
    type: Ready
  - lastTransitionTime: "2023-08-15T20:35:15Z"
    status: "True"
    type: ControlPlaneInitialized
  - lastTransitionTime: "2023-08-15T20:35:15Z"
    status: "True"
    type: ControlPlaneReady
  - lastTransitionTime: "2023-08-15T20:35:15Z"
    status: "True"
    type: DefaultCNIConfigured
  - lastTransitionTime: "2023-08-15T20:35:15Z"
    status: "True"
    type: WorkersReady
  observedGeneration: 2

Cluster status attributes

The following fields may be represented on the cluster status:

status.failureMessage

Descriptive message about a fatal problem while reconciling a cluster

status.failureReason

Machine readable value about a terminal problem while reconciling the cluster set at the same time as the status.failureMessage.

status.conditions

Provides a collection of condition objects that report a high-level assessment of cluster readiness.

status.observedGeneration

This is the latest generation observed, set everytime the status is updated. If this is not the same as the cluster object’s metadata.generation, it means that the status being viewed represents an old generation of the cluster specification and is not up-to-date yet.

Cluster status conditions

Conditions provide a high-level status report representing an assessment of cluster readiness using a collection of conditions each of a particular type. The following condition types are supported:

  • ControlPlaneInitialized - reports the first control plane has been initialized and the cluster is contactable with the kubeconfig. Once this condition is marked True, its value never changes.

  • ControlPlaneReady - reports that the condition of the current state of the control plane with respect to the desired state specified in the Cluster specification. This condition is marked True once the number of control plane nodes in the cluster match the expected number of control plane nodes as defined in the cluster specifications and all the control plane nodes are up to date and ready.

  • DefaultCNIConfigured - reports the configuration state of the default CNI specified in the cluster specifications. It will be marked as True once the default CNI has been successfully configured on the cluster. However, if the EKS Anywhere default cilium CNI has been configured to skip upgrades in the cluster specification, then this condition will be marked as False with the reason SkipUpgradesForDefaultCNIConfigured.

  • WorkersReady - reports that the condition of the current state of worker machines versus the desired state specified in the Cluster specification. This condition is marked True once the number of worker nodes in the cluster match the expected number of worker nodes as defined in the cluster specifications and all the worker nodes are up to date and ready.

  • Ready - reports a summary of the following conditions: ControlPlaneInitialized, ControlPlaneReady, and WorkersReady. It indicates an overall operational state of the EKS Anywhere cluster. It will be marked True once the current state of the cluster has fully reached the desired state specified in the Cluster spec.

15 - Delete cluster

How to delete an EKS Anywhere cluster

NOTE: EKS Anywhere Bare Metal clusters do not yet support separate workload and management clusters. Use the instructions for Deleting a management cluster to delete a Bare Metal cluster.

Deleting a workload cluster

Follow these steps to delete your EKS Anywhere cluster that is managed by a separate management cluster.

To delete a workload cluster, you will need:

  • name of your workload cluster
  • kubeconfig of your workload cluster
  • kubeconfig of your management cluster

Run the following commands to delete the cluster:

  1. Set up CLUSTER_NAME and KUBECONFIG environment variables:

    export CLUSTER_NAME=eksa-w01-cluster
    export KUBECONFIG=${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    export MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG=<path-to-management-cluster-kubeconfig>
    
  2. Run the delete command:

  • If you are running the delete command from the directory which has the cluster folder with ${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.yaml:

    eksctl anywhere delete cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME} --kubeconfig ${MANAGEMENT_KUBECONFIG}
    

Deleting a management cluster

Follow these steps to delete your management cluster.

To delete a cluster you will need:

  • cluster name or cluster configuration
  • kubeconfig of your cluster

Run the following commands to delete the cluster:

  1. Set up CLUSTER_NAME and KUBECONFIG environment variables:

    export CLUSTER_NAME=mgmt
    export KUBECONFIG=${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.kubeconfig
    
  2. Run the delete command:

  • If you are running the delete command from the directory which has the cluster folder with ${CLUSTER_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-eks-a-cluster.yaml:

    eksctl anywhere delete cluster ${CLUSTER_NAME}
    
  • Otherwise, use this command to manually specify the clusterconfig file path:

    export CONFIG_FILE=<path-to-config-file>
    eksctl anywhere delete cluster -f ${CONFIG_FILE}
    

Example output:

Performing provider setup and validations
Creating management cluster
Installing cluster-api providers on management cluster
Moving cluster management from workload cluster
Deleting workload cluster
Clean up Git Repo
GitOps field not specified, clean up git repo skipped
🎉 Cluster deleted!

For vSphere, CloudStack, and Nutanix, this will delete all of the VMs that were created in your provider. For Bare Metal, the servers will be powered off if BMC information has been provided. If your workloads created external resources such as external DNS entries or load balancer endpoints you may need to delete those resources manually.

16 - Verify Cluster Images

How to verify cluster images

Verify Cluster Images

Starting from v0.19.0 release, all the images used in cluster operations are signed using AWS Signer and Notation CLI. Anyone can verify signatures associated with the container images EKS Anywhere uses. Signatures are valid for two years. To verify container images, one would have to perform the following steps:

  1. Install and configure the latest version of the AWS CLI. For more information, see Installing or updating the latest version of the AWS CLI in the AWS Command Line Interface User Guide.

  2. Download the container-signing tools from this page by following step 3.

  3. Make sure notation CLI is configured along with the AWS Signer plugin and AWS CLI. Create a JSON file with the following trust policy.

    {
       "version":"1.0",
       "trustPolicies":[
          {
             "name":"aws-signer-tp",
             "registryScopes":[
                "*"
             ],
             "signatureVerification":{
                "level":"strict"
             },
             "trustStores":[
                "signingAuthority:aws-signer-ts"
             ],
             "trustedIdentities":[
                "arn:aws:signer:us-west-2:857151390494:/signing-profiles/notationimageSigningProfileECR_rGorpoAE4o0o"
             ]
          }
       ]
    }
    
  4. Import above trust policy using:

    notation policy import <json-file>
    
  5. Get the bundle of the version for which you want to verify an image:

    export EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION=v0.19.0
    BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL=$(curl -sL https://anywhere-assets.eks.amazonaws.com/releases/eks-a/manifest.yaml | yq ".spec.releases[] | select(.version==\"$EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION\").bundleManifestUrl")
    
  6. Get the image you want to verify by downloading BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL file.

  7. Run the following command to verify the image signature:

    notation verify <image-uri>@<sha256-image-digest>